THE INDIAN SUCCESSION ACT, 1925

                               THE INDIAN SUCCESSION ACT, 1925

 

An Act to consolidate the law applicable to intestate and testamentary succession


WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate the law applicable to intestate and testamentary succession 2*; It is hereby enacted as follows:--

 

                                            PART I

 

                                       PRELIMINARY

 

1. Short title.

 

This Act may be called the Indian Succession Act, 1925.

 

2. Definitions.

 

In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or
context,--

(a) "administrator" means a person appointed by competent authority to administer the estate of a deceased person when there is no executor;


(b) "codicil" means an instrument made in relation to a will, and explaining, altering or adding to its dispositions, and shall be deemed to form part of the
will;


[(bb) "District Judge" means the Judge of a principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction;]


(c) "executor" means a person to whom the execution of the last will of a deceased person is, by the testator's appointment, confided;


[(cc) "India" means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir;]


(d) "Indian Christian" means a native of India who is, or in good faith claims to be, of unmixed Asiatic descent and who professes any form of the Christian religion;


(e) "minor" means any person subject to the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875.), who has not attained his majority within the meaning of that Act, and any other person who has not completed the age of eighteen years; and "minority"
means the status of any such person;

(f) "probate" means the copy of a will certified under the seal of a Court of competent jurisdiction with a grant of administration to the estate of the testator;


[(g) "State" includes any division of India having a Court
of the last resort;] and


(h) "will" means the legal declaration of the intention of a testator with respect to his property which he desires to be carried into effect after his death.

 

3. Power of State Government to exempt any race, sect or tribe in the State
from operation of Act. -

 

(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official
Gazette, either retrospectively from the sixteenth day of March, 1865, or prospectively, exempt from the operation of any of the following provisions of this Act, namely, sections 5 to 49, 58 to 191, 212, 213 and 215 to 369, the members of any race, sect or tribe in the State, or of any part of such race, sect or tribe, to whom the State Government considers it impossible or inexpedient to apply such provisions or any of them mentioned in the order.


(2) The State Government may, by a like notification, revoke any such order, but not so that the revocation shall have retrospective effect.


(3) Persons exempted under this section or exempted from the operation of any of the provisions of the Indian Succession Act, 1865 2* (10 of 1865.), under section 332 of that Act are in this Act referred to as "exempted persons".

 

                                               PART II

 

                                            OF DOMICILE

 

4. Application of Part.

 

This Part shall not apply if the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.

 

5. Law regulating succession to deceased person's immoveable and moveable
property, respectively. -

 

(1) Succession to the immoveable property in 3*[India] of a person deceased shall be regulated by the law of 3*[India], wherever such person may have had his domicile at the time of his death.

 

2. Succession to the moveable property of a person deceased is regulated by the law of the country in which such person had his domicile at the time of his death.

 

6.One domicile only affects succession to moveables..

 

A person can have only one domicile for the purpose of the succession to his moveable property.

 

7. Domicile of origin of person of legitimate birth.-

 

The domicile of origin of every person of legitimate birth is in the country in which at the time of his birth his father was domiciled; or, if he is a posthumous child, in the country in which his father was domiciled at the time of the father's death.

 

8. Domicile of origin of illegitimate child.-

 

The domicile of origin of an illegitimate child is in the country in which, at the time of his birth, his mother was domiciled.

 

9. Continuance of domicile of origin.-

 

The domicile of origin prevails until a new domicile has been acquired.

 

10. Acquisition of new domicile.-

A man acquires a new domicile by taking up his fixed habitation in a country which is not that of his domicile of origin.


Explanation.--A man is not to be deemed to have taken up his fixed habitation in
1*[India] merely by reason of his residing there in 2*[the civil, military, naval or air force service of Government], or in the exercise of any profession or calling.

 

11. Special mode of acquiring domicile in India.-

Any person may acquire a domicile in [India] by making and depositing in some
office in [India], appointed in this behalf by the State Government,
a declaration in writing under his hand of his desire to acquire such
domicile; provided that he has been resident in [India] for one year
immediately preceding the time of his making such declaration.

 

12. Domicile not acquired by residence as representative of foreign Government, or as part of his family. -

 

A person who is appointed by the Government of one country to be its ambassador, consul or other representative in another country does not acquire a domicile in the latter country by reason only of residing there in pursuance of his
appointment; nor does any other person acquire such domicile by reason
only of residing with such first-mentioned person as part of his family, or as a servant.

 

13. Continuance of new domicile.-

 

A new domicile continues until the former domicile has been resumed or another has been acquired.

 

14. Minor's domicile. -

 

The domicile of a minor follows the domicile of the parent from whom he derived his domicile of origin.

 


Exception.--The domicile of a minor does not change with that of
his parent, if the minor is married, or holds any office or employment
in the service of Government, or has set up, with the consent of the
parent, in any distinct business.

 

15. Domicile acquired by woman on marriage.-

 

By marriage a woman acquires the domicile of her husband, if she had not the same domicile before.

 

16. Wife's domicile during marriage.-

 

A wife's domicile during her marriage follows the domicile of her husband.


Exception.--The wife's domicile no longer follows that of her husband if they are separated by the sentence of a competent Court, or if the husband is undergoing a sentence of transportation.

 

17.Minor's acquisition of new domicile.-

 

Save as hereinbefore otherwise provided in this Part, person cannot, during minority, acquire a new domicile.


18. Lunatic's acquisition of new domicile. -

 

An insane person cannot acquire a new domicile in any other way than by his domicile following the domicile of another person.

 


19. Succession to moveable property in India in absence of proof of
domicile elsewhere.

 

If a person dies leaving moveable property in [India], in the absence of proof of any domicile elsewhere, succession to the property is regulated by the law of 1*[India].

 

                                          PART III

 

                                         MARRIAGE

 

20.Interests and powers not acquired not lost by marriage.

 


(1) No person shall, by marriage, acquire any interest in the property of
the person whom he or she marries or become incapable of doing any act
in respect of his or her own property which he or she could have done
if unmarried.

(2) This section--


(a) shall not apply to any marriage contracted before the first day of January, 1866;


(b) shall not apply, and shall be deemed never to have applied, to any marriage, one or both of the parties to which professed at the time of the marriage the Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina religion.

 

21. Effect of marriage between person domiciled and one not domiciled in
India. -

 

If a person whose domicile is in 1*[India] marries in 1*[India] a person whose domicile is in 1*[India], neither party acquires by the marriage any rights in respect of any property of the other party not comprised in a settlement made previous to the marriage, which he or she would not acquire thereby if both were
domiciled in 1*[India] at the time of the marriage.

 

22.Settlement of minor's property in contemplation of marriage.

 

(1) The property of a minor may be settled in contemplation of marriage, provided the settlement is made by the minor with the approbation of the minor's father, or, if the father is dead or absent from 1*[India], with the approbation of the High Court.

 


(2) Nothing in this section or in section 21 shall apply to any will made or intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to intestate or testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.

 

                                              PART IV

 

                                        OF CONSANGUINITY

 

23. Application of Part. -

 

Nothing in this Part shall apply to any will made or intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to intestate or testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or Parsi.


24. Kindred or consanguinity.-

 

Kindred or consanguinity is the connection or relation of persons descended from the same stock or common ancestor.

 


25. Lineal consanguinity. -

 

(1) Lineal consanguinity is that which subsists between two persons, one of whom is descended in a direct line from the other, as between a man and his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, and so upwards in the direct ascending line; or
between a man and his son, grandson, great-grandson and so downwards in the direct descending line.

(2) Every generation constitutes a degree, either ascending or
descending.


(3) A person's father is related to him in the first degree, and so likewise is his son; his grandfather and grandson in the second degree; his great-grandfather and great-grandson in the third degree, and so on.

 

26. Collateral consanguinity.-

(1) Collateral consanguinity is that which subsists between two persons who are descended from the same stock or ancestor, but neither of whom is descended in a direct line from the other.


(2) For the purpose of ascertaining in what degree of kindred any collateral relative stands to a person deceased, it is necessary to reckon upwards from the person deceased to the common stock and then downwards to the collateral relative, a degree being allowed for each person, both ascending and descending.

 

27. Persons held for purpose of succession to be similarly related to
deceased. -

For the purpose of succession, there is no
distinction--


(a) between those who are related to a person deceased through his father, and those who are related to him through his mother; or


(b) between those who are related to a person deceased by the full blood, and those who are related to him by the half blood; or


(c) between those who were actually born in the lifetime of a person deceased and those who at the date of his death were only conceived in the womb, but who have
been subsequently born alive.

 

28. Mode of computing of degrees of kindred. -

 

Degrees of kindred are computed in the manner set forth in the table of kindred set out in Schedule I.

 

                                          PART V

 

                              INTESTATE SUCCESSION

 

                                        CHAPTER I

 

                                        Preliminary

 

29.Application of Part. -

 

(1) This Part shall not apply to any intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.

 


(2) Save as provided in sub-section (1) or by any other law for the time being in force, the provisions of this Part shall constitute the law of 1*[India] in all cases of intestacy.

 


30. As to what property deceased considered to have died intestate. -

 

A person is deemed to die intestate in respect of all property of which he has not made a testamentary disposition which is capable of taking effect.

 

                                             CHAPTER II

 

                      Rules in cases of Intestates other than Parsis

 

31. Chapter not to apply to Parsis.-

 

Nothing in this Chapter shall apply to Parsis.


32. Devolution of such property.-

 

The property of an intestate devolves upon the wife or husband, or upon those who are of the kindred of the deceased, in the order and according to the rules
hereinafter contained in this Chapter.


Explanation.--A widow is not entitled to the provision hereby made for her if, by a valid contract made before her marriage, she has been excluded from her distributive share of her husband's estate.

 

33. Where intestate has left widow and lineal descendants, or widow and
kindred only, or widow and no kindred. -

Where the intestate has left a widow--


(a) if he has also left any lineal descendants, one-third of his property shall belong to his widow, and the remaining two-thirds shall go to his lineal descendants, according to the rules hereinafter contained;


(b) [save as provided by section 33A], if he has left no lineal descendant, but has left persons who are of kindred to him, one-half of his property shall belong
to his widow, and the other half shall go to those who are kindred to him, in the order and according to the rules hereinafter contained;


(c) if he has left none who are of kindred to him, the whole of his property shall belong to his widow.

 

[33A. Special provision where intestate has left widow and no
lineal descendants.-

(1) Where the intestate has left a widow but no lineal descendants and the nett value of his property does not exceed five thousand rupees, the whole of his property shall belong to the widow.


(2) Where the nett value of the property exceeds the sum of five thousand rupees, the widow shall be entitled to five thousand rupees thereof and shall have a charge upon the whole of such property for such sum of five thousand rupees, with interest thereon from the date of the death of the intestate at 4 per cent. per annum until payment.


(3) The provision for the widow made by this section shall be in addition and without prejudice to her interest and share in the residue of the estate of such intestate remaining after payment of the said sum of five thousand rupees with interest as aforesaid, and such residue shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of section 33 as if it were the whole of such intestate's property.


(4) The nett value of the property shall be ascertained by deducting from the gross value thereof all debts, and all funeral and administration expenses of the intestate, and all other lawful liabilities and charges to which the property shall be subject.


(5) This section shall not apply--


(a) to the property of--


(i) any Indian Christian,

 

(ii) any child or grandchild of any male person who is or was at the time of his death an Indian Christian, or


(iii) any person professing the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina religion the succession to whose property is, under section 24 of the Special Marriage Act, 1872
(3 of 1872.), regulated by the provisions of this Act;


(b) unless the deceased dies intestate in respect of all his
property.]


34. Where intestate has left no widow, and where he has left no kindred. -

 

Where the intestate has left no widow, his property shall go to his lineal descendants or to those who are of kindred to him, not being lineal descendants, according to the rules hereinafter contained; and, if he has left none who are of kindred to him, it shall go to the Government.


35. Rights of widower.

 

A husband surviving his wife has the same rights in respect of her property, if she dies intestate, as a widow has in respect of her husband's property, if he dies intestate.

 


36. Rules of distribution.

 

The rules for the distribution of the intestate's property (after deducting the widow's share, if he has left a widow) amongst his lineal descendants shall be those contained in sections 37 to 40.

 


37. Where intestate has left child or children only.

 

Where the intestate has left surviving him a child or children, but no more
remote lineal descendant through a deceased child, the property shall belong to his surviving child, if there is only one, or shall be equally divided among all his surviving children.

 


38. Where intestate has left no child, but grandchild or grandchildren.

 

Where the intestate has not left surviving him any child but has left a grandchild or grandchildren and no more remote descendant through a deceased grandchild, the property shall belong to his surviving grandchild if there is one, or shall be equally divided among all his surviving grandchildren.

 

39. Where intestate has left only great-grandchildren or remoter lineal
descendants.

 

In like manner the property shall go to the surviving lineal descendants who are nearest in degree to the intestate, where they are all in the degree of great-grandchildren to him, or are all in a more remote degree.

 


40. Where intestate leaves lineal descendants not all in same degree of
kindred to him, and those through whom the more remote are descended
are dead.

 

(1) If the intestate has left lineal descendants who do not all stand in the same degree of kindred to him, and the persons through whom the more remote are descended from him are dead, the property shall be divided into such a number of equal shares as may correspond with the number of the lineal descendants of the
intestate who either stood in the nearest degree of kindred to him at his decease, or, having been of the like degree of kindred to him, died before him, leaving lineal descendants who survived him.

 


(2) One of such shares shall be allotted to each of the lineal descendants who stood in the nearest degree of kindred to the intestate at his decease; and one of such shares shall be allotted in respect of each of such deceased lineal descendants; and the share allotted in respect of each of such deceased lineal descendants shall belong to his surviving child or children or more remote lineal descendants, as the case may be; such surviving child or children or more remote lineal descendants always taking the share which his or their parent or parents would have been entitled to respectively if such parent or parents had survived the intestate.

 

41. Rules of distribution where intestate has left no lineal descendants. -

 

Where an intestate has left no lineal descendants, the rules for the distribution of his property (after deducting the widow's share, if he has left a widow) shall be those contained in sections 42 to 48.

 


42. Where intestate's father living.-

 

If the intestate's father is living, he shall succeed to the property.


43. Where intestate's father dead, but his mother, brothers and sisters
living.-

 

If the intestate's father is dead, but the intestate's mother is living and there are also brothers or sisters of the intestate living, and there is no child living of any deceased brother or sister, the mother and each living brother or sister shall succeed to the property in equal shares.



44. Where intestate's father dead and his mother, a brother or sister, and children of any deceased brother or sister, living. -

 

If the intestate's father is dead but the intestate's mother is living, and if any brother or sister and the child or children of any brother or sister who may have died in the intestate's lifetime are also living, then the mother and each living brother or sister, and the living child or children of each deceased brother or sister, shall be entitled to the property in equal shares, such children (if more than
one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective
parents would have taken if living at the intestate's death.

 

45. Where intestate's father dead and his mother and children of any
deceased brother or sister living. -

 

If the intestate's father is dead, but the intestate's mother is living, and the brothers and sisters are all dead, but all or any of them have left children who survived the intestate, the mother and the child or children of each deceased brother or sister shall be entitled to the property in equal shares, such children (if more than one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective parents would have taken if living at the intestate's death.

 

46. Where intestate's father dead, but his mother living and no brother,
sister, nephew or niece. -

 

If the intestate's father is dead, but the intestate's mother is living, and there is neither brother, nor sister, nor child of any brother or sister of the intestate, the
property shall belong to the mother.


47. Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor father, nor
mother. -

Where the intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor father, nor mother, the property shall be divided equally between his brothers and sisters and the child or children of such of them as may have died before him, such children (if more than
one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective parents would have taken if living at the intestate's death.


48. Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor parent, nor
brother, nor sister.-

Where the intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor parent, nor brother, nor sister, his property shall be divided equally among those of his relatives who are in the nearest degree of kindred to him.

 

49. Children's advancements not brought into hotchpot. -

 

Where a distributive share in the property of a person who has died intestate is claimed by a child, or any descendant of a child, of such person, no money or other property which the intestate may, during his life, have paid, given or settled to, or for the advancement of, the child by whom or by whose descendant the claim is made shall be taken into account in estimating such distributive share.

 

                                              CHAPTER III


                            Special Rules for Parsi Intestates


50. General principles relating to intestate succession.-

 

For the purpose of intestate succession among Parsis--


(a) there is no distinction between those who were actually born in the lifetime of a person deceased and those who at the date of his death were only conceived in the womb, but who have been subsequently born alive;


(b) a lineal descendant of an intestate who has died in the lifetime of the intestate without leaving a widow or widower or any lineal descendant or [a widow or
widower of any lineal descendant] shall not be taken into account in determining the manner in which the property of which the intestate has died intestate
shall be divided; and


(c) where a [widow or widower of any relative] of an intestate has married again in the lifetime of the intestate, 2*[such widow or widower shall not be
entitled to receive any share of the property of which the intestate has died intestate, and [such widow or widower] shall be deemed not to be existing at the intestate's death.

 

51. Division of intestate's property among widow, widower, children and
Parents. -

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the property of which a Parsi dies intestate shall be divided,--


(a) where such Parsi dies leaving a widow or widower and children, among the widow or widower, and children so that the widow or widower and each child receive equal shares;


(b) where such Parsi dies leaving children, but no widow or widower, among the children in equal shares.


(2) Where a Parsi dies leaving one or both parents in addition to children or widow or widower and children, the property of which such Parsi dies intestate shall be so divided that the parent or each of the parents shall receive a share equal to half the share of each child."].

 

53. Division of share of predeceased child of intestate leaving lineal
descendants. -

In all cases where a Parsi dies leaving any lineal descendant, if any child of such intestate has died in the lifetime of the intestate, the division of the share of the property of which the intestate has died intestate which such child would have taken if living at the intestate's death shall be in accordance with the
following rules, namely:--


(a) If such deceased child was a son, his widow and children shall take shares in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter as if he had died immediately after the intestate's death:


Provided that where such deceased son has left a widow or a widow of a lineal descendant but no lineal descendant, the residue of his share after such
distribution has been made shall be divided in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter as property of which the intestate has died intestate, and
in making the division of such residue the said deceased son of the intestate shall not be taken into account.


(b) If such deceased child was a daughter, her share shall be divided equally among her children.


(c) If any child of such deceased child has also died during the lifetime of the intestate, the share which he or she would have taken if living at the intestate's
death, shall be divided in like manner in accordance with clause (a) or clause (b) as the case may be.


(d) Where a remoter lineal descendant of the intestate has died during the lifetime of the intestate, the provisions of clause (c) shall apply mutatis mutandis
to the division of any share to which he or she would have been entitled if living at the intestate's death by reason of the pre decease of all the intestate's lineal descendants directly between him or her and the intestate.

 

54. Division of property where intestate leaves no lineal descendant out leaves a widow or widower or a widow or widower of any lineal descendant. -

 

Where a Parsi dies without leaving any lineal descendant but leaving a widow or widower or a widow or widower of a lineal descendant, the property of which the intestate dies intestate shall be divided in accordance with the following rules, namely:--

 


(a) if the intestate leaves a widow or widower but no widow or widower of a lineal descendant, the widow or widower shall take half the said property;

 


(b) if the intestate leaves a widow or widower and also a widow or widower of any lineal descendant, his widow or her widower shall receive one-third of the said property and the widow or widower of any lineal descendant shall receive another
one-third or if there is more than one such widow or widower of lineal descendants, the last mentioned one-third shall be divided equally among them;

 


(c) if the intestate leaves no widow or widower, but one widow or widower of a lineal descendant, such widow or widower of the lineal descendant shall receive one-third of the said property or, if the intestate leaves no widow or widower but more
than one widow or widower of lineal descendants, two-thirds of the said property shall be divided among such widows or widower of the lineal descendants in equal shares;

 


(d) the residue after the division specified in clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) has been made shall be distributed among the relatives of the intestate in the order specified in Part I of Schedule II; and the next-of-kin standing first in Part
I of that Schedule shall be preferred to those standing second, the second, the second to the third and so on in succession, provided that the property shall be so distributed that each male and female standing in the same degree of propinquity shall receive equal shares;

 


(e) if there are no relatives entitled to the residue under clause (d), the whole of the residue shall be distributed in proportion to the shares specified among the persons entitled to receive shares under this section."]

 

55. Division of property where intestate leaves neither lineal descendants
nor a widow or widower nor a widow of any lineal descendant. -

 

When a Parsi dies leaving neither lineal descendants nor a widow or widower nor ["a widow or widower of any lineal descendant"] his or her next-of-kin, in the order set forth in Part II of Schedule II, shall be entitled to succeed to the whole of the property of which he or she dies intestate. The next-of-kin standing first in Part II of that Schedule shall be preferred to those standing second, the second to the third, and so on in succession, provided that the property shall be so distributed that ["each male and female standing in the same degree of propinquity shall receive equal shares"].


56. Division of property where there is no relative entitled to succeed
under the other provisions of this Chapter. -

 

Where there is no relative entitled to succeed under the other provisions of this
Chapter to the property of which a Parsi has died intestate, the said property shall be divided equally among those of the intestate's relatives who are in the nearest degree of kindred to him.]

 

                                          PART VI

 
                           TESTAMENTARY SUCCESSION


                                       CHAPTER I


                                        Introductory

 

57. Application of certain provisions of Part to a class of wills made by
Hindus, etc. -

 

The provisions of this Part which are set out in Schedule III shall, subject to the restrictions and modifications specified therein, apply--

 


(a) to all wills and codicils made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina, on or after the first day of September, 1870, within the territories which at the said date
were subject to the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal or within the local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Courts of Judicature at Madras
and Bombay; and

 


(b) to all such wills and codicils made outside those territories and limits so far as relates to immoveable property situate within those territories or limits;
[and

 

(c) to all wills and codicils made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina on or after the first day of January, 1927, to which those provisions are not applied by
clauses (a) and (b):]

 


Provided that marriage shall not revoke any such will or codicil.

 

58. General application of Part. -

 

(1) The provisions of this Part shall not apply to testamentary succession to the property of any Muhammadan nor, save as provided by section 57, to testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina; nor
shall they apply to any will made before the first day of January, 1866.


(2) Save as provided in sub-section (1) or by any other law for the time being in force the provisions of this Part shall constitute the law of 1*[India] applicable to all cases of testamentary succession.

 

                                          CHAPTER II


                                  Of Wills and Codicils

 

59. Person capable of making wills. -

Every person of sound mind not being a minor may dispose of his property by will.


Explanation 1.--A married woman may dispose by will of any property which she could alienate by her own act during her life.


Explanation 2.--Persons who are deaf or dumb or blind are not thereby incapacitated for making a will if they are able to know what they do by it.


Explanation 3.--A person who is ordinarily insane may make a will during interval in which he is of sound mind.


Explanation 4.--No person can make a will while he is in such a state of mind, whether arising from intoxication or from illness or from any other cause, that he does not know what he is doing.

 

60.Testamentary guardian. -

 

A father, whatever his age may be, may by will appoint a guardian or guardians for his child during minority.

 


61. Will obtained by fraud, coercion or importunity. -

 

A will or any part of a will, the making of which has been caused by fraud or
coercion, or by such importunity as takes away the free agency of the
testator, is void.

 

62. Will may be revoked or altered. -

A will is liable to be revoked or altered by the maker of it at any time when he is competent to dispose of his property by will.

 

                                      CHAPTER III

 


                    Of the Execution of unprivileged Wills

 

63. Execution of unprivileged wills.-

 

Every testator, not being a soldier employed in an expedition or engaged in actual warfare, 1*[or an airman so employed or engaged,] or a mariner at sea, shall execute his will according to the following rules:--

 


(a) The testator shall sign or shall affix his mark to the will, or it shall be signed by some other person in his presence and by his direction.

 


(b) The signature or mark of the testator, or the signature of the person signing for him, shall be so placed that it shall appear that it was intended thereby to give
effect to the writing as a will.

 


(c) The will shall be attested by two or more witnesses, each of whom has seen the testator sign or affix his mark to the will or has seen some other person sign the
will, in the presence and by the direction of the testator, or has received from the testator a personal acknowledgment of his signature or mark, or of the signature of such other person; and each of the witnesses shall sign the will in the presence of the testator, but it shall not be necessary that more than one witness be present at the same time, and no particular form of attestation shall be necessary.

 


64. Incorporation of papers by reference. -

 

If a testator, in a will or codicil duly attested, refers to any other document then
actually written as expressing any part of his intentions, such document shall be deemed to form a part of the will or codicil in which it is referred to.

 

                                         CHAPTER IV

 


                                     Of privileged Wills

 

65. Privileged wills. -

 

Any soldier being employed in an expedition or engaged in actual warfare, 1*[or an airman so employed or engaged,] or any mariner being at sea, may, if he has completed the age of eighteen years, dispose of his property by a will made in the manner provided in section 66. Such wills are called privileged wills.

 

66. Mode of making, and rules for executing, privileged wills.-


(1) Privileged wills may be in writing, or may be made by word of
mouth.


(2) The execution of privileged wills shall be governed by the
following rules:--


(a) The will may be written wholly by the testator, with his own hand. In such case it need not be signed or attested.


(b) It may be written wholly or in part by another person, and signed by the testator. In such case it need not be attested.


(c) If the instrument purporting to be a will is written wholly or in part by another person and is not signed by the testator, it shall be deemed to be his will, if
it is shown that it was written by the testator's directions or that he recognised it as his will.


(d) If it appears on the face of the instrument that the execution of it in the manner intended by the testator was not completed, the instrument shall not, by reason of that circumstance, be invalid, provided that his non-execution of it can be reasonably ascribed to some cause other than the abandonment of the testamentary intentions expressed in the instrument.

 

                                          CHAPTER V

 


            Of the Attestation, Revocation, Alteration and Revival of Wills

 

67. Effect of gift to attesting witness. -

 

A will shall not be deemed to be insufficiently attested by reason of any benefit thereby given either by way of bequest or by way of appointment to any person
attesting it, or to his or her wife or husband; but the bequest or appointment shall be void so far as concerns the person so attesting, or the wife or husband of such person, or any person claiming under either of them.

 


Explanation.--A legatee under a will does not lose his legacy by
attesting a codicil which confirms the will.


68. Witness not disqualified by interest or by being executor. -

 

No person, by reason of interest in, or of his being an executor of, a will, shall be disqualified as a witness to prove the execution of the will or to prove the validity or invalidity thereof.


69. Revocation of will by testator's marriage. -

 

Every will shall be revoked by the marriage of the maker, except a will made in
exercise of a power of appointment, when the property over which the power of appointment is exercised would not, in default of such appointment, pass to his or her executor or administrator, or to the person entitled in case of intestacy.


Explanation.--Where a man is invested with power to determine the
disposition of property of which he is not the owner, he is said to
have power to appoint such property.

 

70. Revocation of unprivileged will or codicil.

 

No unprivileged will or codicil, nor any part thereof, shall be revoked otherwise than
by marriage, or by another will or codicil, or by some writing declaring an intention to revoke the same and executed in the manner in which an unprivileged will is hereinbefore required to be executed, or by the burning, tearing, or otherwise destroying the same by the testator or by some person in his presence and by his direction with the intention of revoking the same.

 

71. Effect of obliteration, interlineation or alteration in unprivileged will. -

No obliteration, interlineation or other alteration made in any unprivileged will after the execution thereof shall have any effect, except so far as the words or meaning of the will have been thereby rendered illegible or undiscernible, unless such
alteration has been executed in like manner as hereinbefore is required for the execution of the will:


Provided that the will, as so altered, shall be deemed to be duly executed if the signature of the testator and the subscription of the witnesses is made in the margin or on some other part of the will opposite or near to such alteration, or at the foot or end of or opposite to a memorandum referring to such alteration, and written at the end or some other part of the will.


72. Revocation of privileged will or codicil. -

 

A privileged will or codicil may be revoked by the testator by an unprivileged will or
codicil, or by any act expressing an intention to revoke it and accompanied by such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a privileged will, or by the burning, tearing or otherwise destroying the same by the testator, or by some person in his presence and by his direction, with the intention of revoking the same.


Explanation.--In order to the revocation of a privileged will or codicil by an act accompanied by such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a privileged will, it is not necessary that the testator should at the time of doing that act be in a situation which entitles him to make a privileged will.


73. Revival of unprivileged will. -

(1) No unprivileged will or codicil, nor any part thereof, which has been revoked in any manner, shall be revived otherwise than by the re-execution thereof, or by a codicil executed in manner hereinbefore required, and showing an intention to revive the same.


(2) When any will or codicil, which has been partly revoked and afterwards wholly revoked, is revived, such revival shall not extend to so much thereof as has been revoked before the revocation of the whole thereof, unless an intention to the contrary is shown by the will or codicil.

 

                                    CHAPTER VI

 

                           Of the construction of Wills

 

74. Wording of will. -

 

It is not necessary that any technical words or terms of art be used in a will, but only that the wording be such that the intentions of the testator can be known therefrom.

 


75. Inquiries to determine questions as to object or subject of will. -

 

For the purpose of determining questions as to what person or what property is denoted by any words used in a will, a Court shall inquire into every material fact relating to the persons who claim to be interested under such will, the property which is claimed as the subject of disposition, the circumstances of the testator and of his family, and into every fact a knowledge of which may conduce to the
right application of the words which the testator has used.

 

76.  Misnomer or misdescription of object. -

 

(1) Where the words used in a will to designate or describe a legatee or a class of
legatees sufficiently show what is meant, an error in the name or description shall not prevent the legacy from taking effect.


(2) A mistake in the name of a legatee may be corrected by a
description of him, and a mistake in the description of a legatee may
be corrected by the name.

 

77. When words may be supplied.

 

Where any word material to the full expression of the meaning has been omitted, it may be supplied by the context.

 

78.Rejection of erroneous particulars in description of subject. -


If the thing which the testator intended to bequeath can be sufficiently identified from the description of it given in the will, but some parts of the description do not apply, such parts of the description shall be rejected as erroneous, and the bequest shall take effect.

 

79.  When part of description may not be rejected as erroneous. -

 

If a will mentions several circumstances as descriptive of the thing which the testator intends to bequeath, and there is any property of his in respect of which all those circumstances exist, the bequest shall be considered as limited to such property, and it shall not be lawful to reject any part of the description as erroneous, because the testator had other property to which such part of the description does not apply.


Explanation.-

In judging whether a case falls within the meaning of this section, any words which would be liable to rejection under section 78 shall be deemed to have been struck out of the will.

 

80. Extrinsic evidence admissible in cases of patent ambiguity. -


Where the words of a will are unambiguous, but it is found by extrinsic evidence that they admit of applications, one only of which can have been intended by the testator, extrinsic evidence may be taken to show which of these applications was intended.

 

81. Extrinsic evidence inadmissible in case of patent ambiguity or deficiency. -

 

Where there is an ambiguity or deficiency on the face of a will, no extrinsic evidence as to the intentions of the testator shall be admitted.

 

82. Meaning of clause to be collected from entire will.-

 

The meaning of any clause in a will is to be collected from the entire instrument, and all its parts are to be construed with reference to each other.

 

83. When words may be understood in restricted sense, and when in sense
wider than usual. -

 

General words may be understood in arestricted sense where it may be collected from the will that the testator meant to use them in a restricted sense; and words may be understood in a wider sense than that which they usually bear, where
it may be collected from the other words of the will that the testator meant to use them in such wider sense.

 

84.  Which of two possible constructions preferred. -

 

Where a clause is susceptible of two meanings according to one of which it has some effect, and according to the other of which it can have none, the
former shall be preferred.

 


85. No part rejected, if can be it reasonably construed. -

 

No part of a will shall be rejected as destitute of meaning if it is possible to put a reasonable construction upon it.


86. Interpretation of words repeated in different parts of will. -


If the same words occur in different parts of the same will, they shall be taken to have been used everywhere in the same sense, unless a contrary intention appears.

 

87. Testator's intention to be effectuated as far as possible.-


The intention of the testator shall not be set aside because it cannot take effect to the full extent, but effect is to be given to it as far as possible.

 

88. The last of two inconsistent clauses prevails. -

 

Where two clauses of gifts in a will are irreconcileable, so that they cannot
possibly stand together, the last shall prevail.

 

89. Will or bequest void for uncertainty. -

 

A will or bequest not expressive of any definite intention is void for uncertainty.

 

90. Words describing subject refer to property answering description at
testator's death. -

 

The description contained in a will will of property, the subject of gift, shall, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, be deemed to refer to and comprise the property answering that description at the death of the testator.

 

91. Power of appointment executed by general bequest. -

 

Unless a contrary intention appears by the will, a bequest of the estate of the
testator shall be construed to include any property which he may have power to appoint by will to any object he may think proper, and shall operate as an execution of such power; and a bequest of property described in a general manner shall be construed to include any property to which such description may extend, which he may have power to appoint by will to any object he may think proper, and shall operate as an execution of such power.


92. Implied gift to objects of power in default of appointment.-


Where property is bequeathed to or for the benefit of certain objects
as a specified person may appoint or for the benefit of certain objects in such proportions as a specified person may appoint, and the will does not provide for the event of no appointment being made; if the power given by the will is not exercised, the property belongs to all the objects of the power in equal shares.

 

93. Bequest to "heirs," etc., of particular person without qualifying terms.-

 

Where a bequest is made to the "heirs" or "right heirs" or "relations" or "nearest relations" or "family" cr "kindred" or "nearest of kin" or "next-of-kin" of a particular person without any qualifying terms, and the class so designated forms the direct and independent object of the bequest, the property bequeathed shall be
distributed as if it had belonged to such person and he had died intestate in respect of it, leaving assets for the payment of his debts independently of such property.

 

94. Bequest to "representatives," etc., of particular person.-


Where a bequest is made to the "representatives" or "legal representatives" or "personal representatives" or "executors or administrators" of a particular person, and the class so designated forms the direct and independent object of the bequest, the property bequeathed shall be distributed as if it had belonged to such person and he had died intestate in respect of it.

 

95. Bequest without words of limitation.-

 

Where property is bequeathed to any person, he is entitled to the whole interest of the testator therein, unless it appears from the will that only a
restricted interest was intended for him.


96. Bequest in alternative.-

 

Where a property is bequeathed to a person with a bequest in the alternative to another person or to a class of persons, then, if a contrary intention does not appear by the will, the legatee first named shall be entitled to the legacy if he is
alive at the time when it takes effect; but if he is then dead, the person or class of persons named in the second branch of the alternative shall take the legacy.

 

97. Effect of words describing a class added to bequest to person.-

 

Where property is bequeathed to a person, and words are added which describe a class of persons but do not denote them as direct objects of a distinct and independent gift, such person is entitled to the whole interest of the testator therein, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.

 

98. Bequest to class of persons under general description only.-


Where a bequest is made to a class of persons under a general description only, no one to whom the words of the description are not in their ordinary sense applicable shall take the legacy.


99. Construction of terms.-In a will--

 


(a) the word "children" applies only to lineal descendants in the first degree of the person whose "children" are spoken of;

 


(b) the word "grandchildren" applies only to lineal descendants in the second degree of the person whose "grandchildren" are spoken of;

 


(c) the words "nephews" and "nieces" apply only to children of brothers or sisters;

 


(d) the words "cousins", or "first cousins", or "cousins german," apply only to children of brothers or of sisters of the father or mother of the person whose "cousins," or "first cousins," or "cousins-german," are spoken of;

 


(e) the words "first cousins once removed" apply only to children of cousins-german, or to cousins-german of a parent of the person whose "first cousins once removed" are spoken of;

 


(f) the words "second cousins" apply only to grandchildren of brothers or of sisters of the grandfather or grandmother of the person whose "second cousins" are spoken of;

 


(g) the words "issue" and "descendants" apply to all lineal descendants whatever of the person whose "issue" or "descendants" are spoken of;

 


(h) words expressive of collateral relationship apply alike to relatives of full and of half blood; and

 


(i) all words expressive of relationship apply to a child in the womb who is afterwards born alive.

 


100. Words expressing relationship denote only legitimate relatives or failing such relatives reputed legitimate.-

 

In the absence of any intimation to the contrary in a will, the word "child," the
word "son," the word "daughter," or any word which expresses relationship, is to be understood as denoting only a legitimate relative, or, where there is no such legitimate relative, a person who has acquired, at the date of the will, the reputation of being such relative.

 

101. Rules of construction where will purports to make two
bequests to same person.-

 

Where a will purports to make two bequests to the same person, and a question arises whether the testator intended to make the second bequest instead of or in addition to the first; if there is nothing in the will to show what he intended, the following rules shall have effect in determining the construction to be put upon
the will:--


(a) If the same specific thing is bequeathed twice to the same legatee in the same will or in the will and again in the codicil, he is entitled to receive that specific
thing only.

 


(b) Where one and the same will or one and the same codicil purports to make, in two places, a bequest to the same person of the same quantity or amount of anything, he shall be entitled to one such legacy only.

 


(c) Where two legacies of unequal amount are given to the same person in the same will, or in the same codicil, the legatee is entitled to both.

 


(d) Where two legacies, whether equal or unequal in amount, are given to the same legatee, one by a will and the other by a codicil, or each by a different codicil, the legatee is entitled to both legacies.

 

102. Constitution of residuary legatee.-

 

A residuary legatee may be constituted by any words that show an intention on the part of the testator that the person designated shall take the surplus or residue of his property.

 

103. Property to which residuary legatee entitled.-

 

Under a residuary bequest, the legatee is entitled to all property belonging
to the testator at the time of his death, of which he has not made any other testamentary disposition which is capable of taking effect.

 

104.  Time of vesting legacy in general terms.-

If a legacy is given in general terms, without specifying the time when it is to be
paid, the legatee has a vested interest in it from the day of the death of the testator, and, if he dies without having received it, it shall pass to his representatives.


105. In what case legacy lapses.-

 

(1) If the legatee does not survive the testator, the legacy cannot take effect, but shall lapse and form part of the residue of the testator's property, unless it
appears by the will that the testator intended that it should go to
some other person.

 


(2) In order to entitle the representatives of the legatee to receive the legacy, it must be proved that he survived the testator.

 

106. Legacy does not lapse if one of two joint legatees die before testator.-

 

If a legacy is given to two persons jointly, and one of them dies before the testator, the other legatee takes the whole.



107. Effect of words showing testator's intention to give distinct shares.-

 

If a legacy is given to legatees in words which show that the testator intended to give them distinct shares of it, then, if any legatee dies before the testator, so much of the legacy as was intended for him shall fall into the residue of the testator's property.



108. When lapsed share goes as undisposed of.-

 

Where a share which lapses is a part of the general residue bequeathed by the will, that share shall go as undisposed of.

 

109. When bequest to testator's child or lineal descendant does not lapse on his death in testator's lifetime.-

 

Where a bequest has been made to any child or other lineal descendant of the testator, and the legatee dies in the lifetime of the testator, but any lineal descendant of his survives the testator, the bequest shall not lapse, but shall take effect as if the death of the legatee had happened immediately after the death of the testator, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.

 

110.  Bequest to A for benefit of B does not lapse by A's death.-


Where a bequest is made to one person for the benefit of another, the legacy does not lapse by the death, in the testator's lifetime, of the person to whom the bequest is made.


111. Survivorship in case of bequest to described class.-

 

Where a bequest is made simply to a described class of persons, the thing
bequeathed shall go only to such as are alive at the testator's death.


Exception.--If property is bequeathed to a class of persons described as standing in a particular degree of kindred to a specified individual, but their possession of it is deferred until a time later than the death of the testator by reason of a prior bequest or otherwise, the property shall at that time go to such of them as are
then alive, and to the representatives of any of them who have died since the death of the testator.

 

                                           CHAPTER VII

 

                                         Of void Bequests

 

112. Bequest to person by particular description, who is not in
existence at testator's death.-

 

Where a bequest is made to a person by a particular description, and there is no person in existence at the testator's death who answers the description, the bequest is void.


Exception.--If property is bequeathed to a person described as standing in a particular degree of kindred to a specified individual, but his possession of it is deferred until a time later than the death of the testator, by reason of a prior bequest or otherwise; and if a person answering the description is alive at the death of the testator, or comes into existence between that event and such later
time, the property shall, at such later time, go to that person, or, if he is dead, to his representatives.

 

113. Bequest to person not in existence at testator's death subject to prior bequest.-

 

Where a bequest is made to a person not in existence at the time of the testator's death, subject to a prior bequest contained in the will, the later bequest shall be void, unless it comprises the whole of the remaining interest of the testator in
the thing bequeathed.

 

114. Rule against perpetuity.-

 

No bequest is valid whereby the vesting of the thing bequeathed may be delayed beyond the life-time of one or more persons living at the testator's death and the minority of some person who shall be in existence at the expiration of that
period, and to whom, if he attains full age, the thing bequeathed is to belong.

 

115. Bequest to a class some of whom may come under rules in
sections 113 and 114.-

 

If a bequest is made to a class of persons with regard to some of whom it is inoperative by reason of the provisions of section 113 or section 114, such bequest shall be 1*[void in regard to those persons only, and not in regard to the whole class].

 

116. [ Bequest to take effect on failure of prior bequest.-Where
by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 113 and 114, any
bequest in favour of a person or of a class of persons is void in
regard to such person or the whole of such class, any bequest
contained in the same will and intended to take effect after or upon
failure of such prior bequest is also void.]

 

117. Effect of direction for accumulation.-

 

(1) Where the terms of a will direct that the income arising from any property shall be accumulated either wholly or in part during any period longer than a period of eighteen years from the death of the testator, such direction shall, save as hereinafter provided, be void to the extent to which the period during which the accumulation is directed exceeds the aforesaid period, and at the end of such period of eighteen years the property and the income thereof shall be disposed of as if the period during which the accumulation has been directed to be made had elapsed.


(2) This section shall not affect any direction for accumulation for the purpose of--


(i) the payment of the debts of the testator or any other person taking any interest under the will, or


(ii) the provision of portions for children or remoter issue of the testator or of any other person taking any interest under the will, or


(iii) the preservation or maintenance of any property bequeathed;

 

118. Bequest to religious or charitable uses.-

 

No man having a nephew or niece or any nearer relative shall have power to bequeath any property to religious or charitable uses, except by a will executed not less than twelve months before his death, and deposited within six months from its execution in some place provided by law for the safe custody of the wills of living persons:


2*["Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a Parsi."]

 

                                      CHAPTER VIII

 

                              Of the vesting of Legacies

 

119. Date of vesting of legacy when payment or possession
postponed.-

 

Where by the terms of a bequest the legatee is not entitled to immediate possession of the thing bequeathed, a right to receive it at the proper time shall, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, become vested in the legatee on the testator's death, and shall pass to the legatee's representatives if he dies before that time and without having received the legacy, and in such cases the legacy is from the testator's death said to be vested in interest.


Explanation.--An intention that a legacy to any person shall not become vested in interest in him is not to be inferred merely from a provision whereby the payment or possession of the thing bequeathed is postponed, or whereby a prior interest therein is bequeathed to some other person, or whereby the income arising from the fund bequeathed is directed to be accumulated until the time of payment arrives, or from a provision that, if a particular event shall happen, the legacy
shall go over to another person.

 

120. Date of vesting when legacy contingent upon specified
uncertain event.-

(1) A legacy bequeathed in case a specified uncertain event shall happen does not vest until that event happens.


(2) A legacy bequeathed in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen does not vest until the happening of that event becomes impossible.


(3) In either case, until the condition has been fulfilled, the interest of the legatee is called contingent.


Exception.--Where a fund is bequeathed to any person upon his attaining a particular age, and the will also gives to him absolutely the income to arise from the fund before he reaches that age, or directs the income, or so much of it as may be necessary, to be applied for his benefit, the bequest of the fund is not contingent.

 

121. Vesting of interest in bequest to such members of a class as
shall have attained particular age.-

 

Where a bequest is made only to such members of a class as shall have attained a particular age, a person who has not attained that age cannot have a vested interest in the legacy.

 

                                            CHAPTER IX

 

                                     Of Onerous Bequests

 

122. Onerous bequests.-

 

Where a bequest imposes an obligation on the legatee, he can take nothing by it unless he accepts it fully.

 

123. One of two separate and independent bequests to same person
may be accepted, and other refused.-

 

Where a will contains two separate and independent bequests to the same person, the legatee is at liberty to accept one of them and refuse the other, although the former may be beneficial and the latter onerous.

 

                                           CHAPTER X

 

                                  Of Contingent Bequests

 

124. Bequest contingent upon specified uncertain event, no time
being mentioned for its occurrence.-

 

Where a legacy is given if a specified uncertain event shall happen and no time is mentioned in the will for the occurrence of that event, the legacy cannot take effect, unless such event happens before the period when the fund bequeathed
is payable or distributable.

 

125. Bequest to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period not specified.-

 

Where a bequest is made to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period, but the exact period is not specified, the legacy shall go to such of them as are alive at the time of payment or distribution, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.

 

                                           CHAPTER XI

 

                                     Of Conditional Bequests

 

126. Bequest upon impossible condition.-

 

A bequest upon an impossible condition is void.

 

127. Bequest upon illegal or immoral condition.

 

A bequest upon a condition, the fulfilment of which would be contrary to law or to
morality is void.

 

128. Fulfilment of condition precedent to vesting of legacy.-


Where a will imposes a condition to be fulfilled before the legatee can take a vested interest in the thing bequeathed, the condition shall be considered to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially complied with.

 

129. Bequest to A and on failure of prior bequest to B.-

 

Where there is a bequest to one person and a bequest of the same thing to
another, if the prior bequest shall fail, the second bequest shall take effect upon the failure of the prior bequest although the failure may not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the testator.

 

130.When second bequest not to take effect on failure of first.-


Where the will shows an intention that the second bequest shall take effect only in the event of the first bequest failing in a particular manner, the second bequest shall not take effect, unless the prior bequest fails in that particular manner.

 

131. Bequest over, conditional upon happening or not happening of
specified uncertain event.-

 

(1) A bequest may be made to any person with the condition super-added that, in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, the thing bequeathed shall go to another person, or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen, the thing bequeathed shall go over to another person.


(2) In each case the ulterior bequest is subject to the rules contained in sections 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129 and 130.

 

132. Condition must be strictly fulfilled.-

 

An ulterior bequest of the kind contemplated by section 131 cannot take effect, unless the condition is strictly fulfilled.

 

133. Original bequest not affected by invalidity of second.-

 

If the ulterior bequest be not valid the original bequest is not affected
by it.

 

134. Bequest conditioned that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or not happen.-

 

A bequest may be made with the condition super-added that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen.

 

135. Such condition must not be invalid under section 120.-

 

In order that a condition that a bequest shall cease to have effect may
be valid, it is necessary that the event to which it relates be one which could legally constitute the condition of a bequest as contemplated by section 120.


136. Result of legatee rendering impossible or indefinitely postponing act for which no time specified, and on non-performance of which subject matter to go over.-

 

Where a bequest is made with a condition super-added that, unless the legatee shall perform a certain act, the subject-matter of the bequest shall go to another person, or the bequest shall cease to have effect but no time is specified for the performance of the act; if the legatee takes any step which renders impossible or indefinitely postpones the performance of the act required, the legacy shall go as
if the legatee had died without performing such act.

 

137. Performance of condition, precedent or subsequent, within specified time. Further time in case of fraud.-

 

Where the will requires an act to be performed by the legatee within a specified time, either as a condition to be fulfilled before the legacy is enjoyed, or as a
condition upon the non-fulfilment of which the subject-matter of the bequest is to go over to another person or the bequest is to cease to have effect, the act must be performed within the time specified, unless the performance of it be prevented by fraud, in which case such further time shall be allowed as shall be requisite to make up for the delay caused by such fraud.

 

                                      CHAPTER XII

 

              Of Bequests with Directions as to Application or Enjoyment

 

138. Direction that fund be employed in particular manner following absolute bequest of same to or for benefit of any person.-


Where a fund is bequeathed absolutely to or for the benefit of any person, but the will contains a direction that it shall be applied or enjoyed in a particular manner, the legatee shall be entitled to receive the fund as if the will had contained no such direction.

 

139. Direction that mode of enjoyment of absolute bequest is to be restricted, to secure specified benefit for legatee.-

 

Where a testator absolutely bequeaths a fund, so as to sever it from his own
estate, but directs that the mode of enjoyment of it by the legatee shall be restricted so as to secure a specified benefit for the legatee; if that benefit cannot be obtained for the legatee, the fund belongs to him as if the will had contained no such direction.

 

140. Bequest of fund for certain purposes, some of which cannot be fulfilled.-

 

Where a testator does not absolutely bequeath a fund, so as to sever it from his own estate, but gives it for certain purposes, and part of those purposes cannot be fulfilled, the fund, or so much of it as has not been exhausted upon the objects contemplated by the will, remains a part of the estate of the testator.

 

                                        CHAPTER XIII

 

                              Of Bequests to an Executor


141. Legatee named as executor cannot take unless he shows
intention to act as executor.-

 

If a legacy is bequeathed to a person who is named an executor of the will, he shall not take the legacy, unless he proves the will or otherwise manifests an intention to act as executor.

 

                                    CHAPTER XIV

 

                               Of Specific Legacies

 


142. Specific legacy defined.-

 

Where a testator bequeaths to any person a specified part of his property, which is distinguished from all other parts of his property, the legacy is said to be specific.

 

143. Bequest of certain sum where stocks, etc., in which invested are described.-

 

Where a certain sum is bequeathed, the legacy is not specific merely because the stock, funds or securities in which it is invested are described in the will.

 

144. Bequest of stock where testator had, at date of will, equal or greater amount of stock of same kind.-

 

Where a bequest is made in general terms of a certain amount of any kind of stock, the legacy is not specific merely because the testator was, at the date of his will, possessed of stock of the specified kind, to an equal or greater
amount than the amount bequeathed.

 

145. Bequest of money where not payable until part of testator's property disposed of in certain way.-

 

A money legacy is not specific merely because the will directs its payment to be postponed until some part of the property of the testator has been reduced to a certain form, or remitted to a certain place.

 

146. When enumerated articles not deemed specifically bequeathed.-


Where a will contains a bequest of the residue of the testator's property along with an enumeration of some items of property not previously bequeathed, the articles enumerated shall not be deemed to be specifically bequeathed.


147. Retention, in form, of specific bequest to several persons in succession.-

 

Where property is specifically bequeathed to two or more persons in succession, it shall be retained in the form in which the testator left it, although it may be of such a nature that its value is continually decreasing.

 

148. Sale and investment of proceeds of property bequeathed to two or more persons in succession.-

 

Where property comprised in a bequest to two or more persons in succession is not specifically bequeathed, it shall, in the absence of any direction to the contrary,
be sold, and the proceeds of the sale shall be invested in such securities as the High Court may by any general rule authorise or direct, and the fund thus constituted shall be enjoyed by the successive legatees according to the terms of the will.

 

149. Where deficiency of assets to pay legacies, specific legacy not to abate with general legacies.-

 

If there is a deficiency of assets to pay legacies, a specific legacy is not liable to abate with the general legacies.

 

                                       CHAPTER XV

 

                            Of Demonstrative Legacies

 


150. Demonstrative legacy defined.-

 

Where a testator bequeaths a certain sum of money, or a certain quantity of any other commodity, and refers to a particular fund or stock so as to constitute the same the primary fund or stock out of which payment is to be made, the legacy is said to be demonstrative.


Explanation.--The distinction between a specific legacy and a demonstrative legacy consists in this, that-- where specified property is given to the legatee, the legacy
is specific; where the legacy is directed to be paid out of specified property, it is demonstrative.

 

151. Order of payment when legacy directed to be paid out of fund the subject of specific legacy.-

 

Where a portion of a fund is specifically bequeathed and a legacy is directed to be paid out of the same fund, the portion specifically bequeathed shall first be paid to the legatee, and the demonstrative legacy shall be paid out of the residue of the fund and, so far as the residue shall be deficient, out of the general assets of the testator.

 

                                        CHAPTER XVI

 

                             Of Ademption of Legacies

 


152. Ademption explained.-

 

If anything which has been specifically bequeathed does not belong to the testator at the time of his death, or has been converted into property of a different kind, the legacy is adeemed; that is, it cannot take effect, by reason of the subjectmatter having been withdrawn from the operation of the will.

 

153. Non-ademption of demonstrative legacy.-

 

A demonstrative legacy is not adeemed by reason that the property on which it is
charged by the will does not exist at the time of the death of the testator, or has been converted into property of a different kind, but it shall in such case be paid out of the general assets of the testator.


154. Ademption of specific bequest of right to receive something from third party.-

 

Where the thing specifically bequeathed is the right to receive something of value from a third party, and the testator himself receives it, the bequest is adeemed.

 

155. Ademption pro tanto by testator's receipt of part of entire thing specifically bequeathed.-

 

The receipt by the testator of a part of an entire thing specifically bequeathed shall operate as an ademption of the legacy to the extent of the sum so received.

 

156. Ademption pro tanto by testator's receipt of portion of entire fund of which portion has been specifically bequeathed.-

 

If a portion of an entire fund or stock is specifically bequeathed, the receipt by the testator of a portion of the fund or stock shall operate as an ademption only to the extent of the amount so received; and the residue of the fund or stock shall be applicable to the discharge of the specific legacy.

 

157. Order of payment where portion of fund specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and legacy charged on same fund to another, and, testator having received portion of that fund, remainder insufficient to pay both legacies.-

 

Where a portion of a fund is specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and a legacy charged on the same fund is bequeathed to another legatee, then, if the testator
receives a portion of that fund, and the remainder of the fund is insufficient to pay both the specific and the demonstrative legacy, the specific legacy shall be paid first, and the residue (if any) of the fund shall be applied so far as it will extend in payment of the demonstrative legacy, and the rest of the demonstrative legacy shall be paid out of the general assets of the testator.

 

158. Ademption where stock, specifically bequeathed, does not exist at testator's death.-

 

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed does not exist at the testator's death, the legacy is adeemed.

 

159. Ademption pro tanto where stock, specifically bequeathed, exists in part only at testator's death.-

 

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed exists only in part at the testator's death, the legacy is adeemed so far as regards that part of the stock which has ceased to exist.

 

160. Non-ademption of specific bequest of goods described as connected with certain place, by reason of removal.-

 

A specific bequest of goods under a description connecting them with a certain place is not adeemed by reason that they have been removed from such place from any temporary cause, or by fraud, or without the knowledge or sanction
of the testator.

 

161. When removal of thing bequeathed does not constitute ademption.-

 

The removal of the thing bequeathed from the place in which it is stated in the will to be situated does not constitute an ademption, where the place is only referred to in order to complete the description of what the testator meant to bequeath.

 

162. When thing bequeathed is a valuable to be received by testator from third person; and testator himself, or his representative, receives it.-

 

Where the thing bequeathed is not the right to receive something of value from a third person, but the money

 

163. Change by operation of law of subject of specific bequest between date of will and testator's death.-

 

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of the will and the testator's death, and the change takes place by operation of law, or in the course of execution of the provisions of any legal instrument under which the thing bequeathed was held, the legacy is not adeemed by reason of such change.

 

164. Change of subject without testator's knowledge.-

 

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of
the will and the testator's death, and the change takes place without the knowledge or sanction of the testator, the legacy is not adeemed.

 

165. Stock specifically bequeathed lent to third party on condition that it be replaced.-

 

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed is lent to a third party on condition that it shall be replaced, and it is replaced accordingly, the legacy is not adeemed.

 


166. Stock specifically bequeathed sold but replaced, and belonging to testator at his death.-

 

Where stock specifically bequeathed is sold, and an equal quantity of the same stock is afterwards purchased and belongs to the testator at his death, the legacy is not adeemed.

 

                                      CHAPTER XVII

 

                  Of the Payment of Liabilities in respect of the Subject of a Bequest

 

167. Non-liability of executor to exonerate specific legatees.-


(1) Where property specifically bequeathed is subject at the death of the testator to any pledge, lien or incumbrance created by the testator himself or by any person under whom he claims, then, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, the legatee, if he accepts the bequest, shall accept it subject to such pledge or incumbrance, and shall (as between himself and the testator's estate) be liable to make good the amount of such pledge or incumbrance.


(2) A contrary intention shall not be inferred from any direction which the will may contain for the payment of the testator's debts generally.


Explanation.--A periodical payment in the nature of land-revenue or in the nature of rent is not such an incumbrance as is contemplated by this section.

 

168. Completion of testator's title to things bequeathed to be at cost of his estate.-

 

Where anything is to be done to complete the testator's title to the thing bequeathed, it is to be done at the cost of the testator's estate.

 

169. Exoneration of legatee's immoveable property for which landrevenue or rent payable periodically.-

 

Where there is a bequest of any interest in immovable property in respect of which payment in the nature of land-revenue or in the nature of rent has to be made periodically, the estate of the testator shall (as between such estate and the legatee) make good such payments or a proportion of them, as the case may be, up to the day of his death.

 

170. Exoneration of specific legatee's stock in joint-stock company.-

 

In the absence of any direction in the will, where there is a specific bequest of stock in a joint-stock company, if any call or other payment is due from the testator at the time of his death in respect of the stock, such call or payment shall, as between the testator's estate and the legatee, be borne by the estate; but, if any call or other payment becomes due in respect of such stock after the testator's death, the same shall, as between the testator's estate and the legatee, be borne by the legatee, if he accepts the bequest.

 

                                             CHAPTER XVIII

 
                 Of Bequests of Things described in General Terms


171. Bequest of thing described in general terms.-

 

If there is a bequest of something described in general terms, the executor must purchase for the legatee what may reasonably be considered to answer
the description.

 

                                  CHAPTER XIX


           Of Bequests of the Interest or Produce of a Fund


172. Bequest of interest or produce of fund.-

 

Where the interest or produce of a fund is bequeathed to any person, and the will affords no indication of an intention that the enjoyment of the bequest should
be of limited duration, the principal, as well as the interest, shall belong to the legatee.

 

                                        CHAPTER XX

 
                              Of Bequests of Annuities


173. Annuity created by will payable for life only unless contrary intention appears by will.-

 

Where an annuity is created by will, the legatee is entitled to receive it for his life only, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, notwithstanding that the
annuity is directed to be paid out of the property generally, or that a sum of money is bequeathed to be invested in the purchase of it.

 

174. Period of vesting where will directs that annuity be provided out of proceeds of property, or out of property generally, or where money bequeathed to be invested in purchase of annuity.-

 

Where the will directs that an annuity shall be provided for any person out of the proceeds of property, or out of property generally, or where money is bequeathed to be invested in the purchase of any annuity for any person, on the testator's death, the legacy vests in interest in the legatee, and he is entitled at his option to have an annuity purchased for him or to receive the money appropriated for that purpose by the will.

 

175. Abatement of annuity.-

 

Where an annuity is bequeathed, but the assets of the testator are not sufficient to pay all the legacies given by the will, the annuity shall abate in the same proportion as the other pecuniary legacies given by the will.

 

176. Where gift of annuity and residuary gift, whole annuity to be first satisfied.-

 

Where there is a gift of an annuity and a residuary gift, the whole of the annuity is to be satisfied before any part of the residue is paid to the residuary legatee, and, if necessary, the capital of the testator's estate shall be applied for that purpose.

 

 

                                            CHAPTER XXI


                      Of Legacies to Creditors and Portioners


177. Creditor prima facie entitled to legacy as well as debt.-


Where a debtor bequeaths a legacy to his creditor, and it does not appear from the will that the legacy is meant as a satisfaction of the debt, the creditor shall be entitled to the legacy, as well as to the amount of the debt.


178. Child prima facie entitled to legacy as well as portion.-


Where a parent, who is under obligation by contract to provide a portion for a child, fails to do so, and afterwards bequeaths a legacy to the child, and does not intimate by his will that the legacy is meant as a satisfaction of the portion, the child shall be entitled to receive the legacy, as well as the portion.

 

179. No ademption by subsequent provision for legatee.-

 

No bequest shall be wholly or partially adeemed by a subsequent provision made by settlement or otherwise for the legatee.

 

                                           CHAPTER XXII

 

                                             Of Election

 

180. Circumstances in which election takes place.-

 

Where a person, by his will, professes to dispose of some thing which he has no right to dispose of, the person to whom the thing belongs shall elect either
to confirm such disposition or to dissent from it, and, in the latter case, he shall give up any benefits which may have been provided for him by the will.


181. Devolution of interest relinquished by owner.-

 

An interest relinquished in the circumstances stated in section 180 shall devolve
as if it had not been disposed of by the will in favour of the legatee, subject, nevertheless, to the charge of making good to the disappointed legatee the amount or value of the gift attempted to be given to him by the will.

 


182. Testator's belief as to his ownership immaterial.-

 

The provisions of sections 180 and 181 apply whether the testator does or does not believe that which he professes to dispose of by his will to be his own.

 

183. Bequest for man's benefit how regarded for purpose of election.-

 

A bequest for a person's benefit is, for the purpose of election, the same thing as a bequest made to himself.

 

184. Person deriving benefit indirectly not put to election.-

 

A person taking no benefit directly under a will, but deriving a benefit under it indirectly, is not put to his election.

 

185. Person taking in individual capacity under will may in other character elect to take in opposition.-

 

A person who in his individual capacity takes a benefit under a will may, in another character, elect to take in opposition to the will.

 

186. Exception to provisions of last six sections.-

 


Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 180 to 185, where a particular gift is expressed in the will to be in lieu of something belonging to the legatee, which is also in terms disposed of by the will, then, if the legatee claims that thing, he must relinquish the particular gift, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit given to him by the will.

 

187. When acceptance of benefit given by will constitutes election to take under will.-

 

Acceptance of a benefit given by a will constitutes an election by the legatee to take under the will, if he had knowledge of his right to elect and of those circumstances which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in making an election, or if he waives inquiry into the circumstances.

 

188. Circumstances in which knowledge or waiver is presumed or inferred.-

 

(1) Such knowledge or waiver of inquiry shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed if the legatee has enjoyed for two years the benefits provided for him by the will without doing any act to express dissent.


(2) Such knowledge or waiver of inquiry may be inferred from any act of the legatee which renders it impossible to place the persons interested in the subject-matter of the bequest in the same condition as if such act had not been done.

 

189. When testator's representatives may call upon legatee to elect.-

 

If the legatee does not, within one year after the death of the testator, signify to the testator's representatives his intention to confirm or to dissent from the will, the representatives shall, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make his election; and, if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm the will.

 

190. Postponement of election in case of disability.-

 

In case of disability the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases, or until the election is made by some competent authority.

 

                                           CHAPTER XXIII


                           Of Gifts in Contemplation of Death


191. Property transferable by gift made in contemplation of death.-

 

(1) A man may dispose, by gift made in contemplation of death, of any moveable property which he could dispose of by will.

 


(2) A gift is said to be made in contemplation of death where a man, who is ill and expects to die shortly of his illness, delivers, to another the possession of any moveable property to keep as a gift in case the donor shall die of that illness.

 


(3) Such a gift may be resumed by the giver; and shall not take effect if he recovers from the illness during which it was made; nor if he survives the person to whom it was made.

 

PART VII


PROTECTION OF PROPERTY OF DECEASED


192. Person claiming right by succession to property of deceased may apply for relief against wrongful possession.-

 

(1) If any person dies leaving property, moveable or immoveable, any person claiming a right by succession thereto, or to any portion thereof, may make
application to the District Judge of the district where any part of the property is found or situate for relief, either after actual possession has been taken by another person, or when forcible means of seizing possession are apprehended.

 


(2) Any agent, relative or near friend, or the Court of Wards in cases within their cognizance, may, in the event of any minor, or any disqualified or absent person being entitled by succession to such property as aforesaid, make the like application for relief.

 


193. Inquiry made by Judge.-

 

The District Judge to whom such application is made shall, in the first place, examine the applicant on oath, and may make such further inquiry, if any, as he thinks necessary as to whether there is sufficient ground for believing that the party in possession or taking forcible means for seizing possession has no lawful title, and that the applicant, or the person on whose behalf he applies is really entitled and is likely to be materially prejudiced if left to the ordinary remedy of a suit, and that the application is made bona fide.

 

194. Procedure.-

 

If the District Judge is satisfied that there is sufficient ground for believing as aforesaid but not otherwise, he shall summon the party complained of, and give notice of vacant or disturbed possession by publication, and, after the expiration of a reasonable time, shall determine summarily the right to possession
(subject to a suit as hereinafter provided) and shall deliver possession accordingly:

 


Provided that the Judge shall have the power to appoint an officer who shall take an inventory of effects, and seal or otherwise secure the same, upon being applied to for the purpose, without delay,whether he shall have concluded the inquiry necessary for summoning the party complained of or not.

 

195. Appointment of curator pending determination of proceeding.-

 


If it further appears upon such inquiry as aforesaid that danger is to be apprehended of the misappropriation or waste of the property before the summary proceeding can be determined, and that the delay in obtaining security from the party in possession or the insufficiency thereof is likely to expose the party out of possession to considerable risk, provided he is the lawful owner, the District Judge
may appoint one or more curators whose authority shall continue according to the terms of his or their respective appointment, and in no case beyond the determination of the summary proceeding and the confirmation or delivery of possession in consequence thereof:


Provided that, in the case of land, the Judge may delegate to the Collector, or to any officer subordinate to the Collector, the powers of a curator:


Provided, further, that every appointment of a curator in respect of any property shall be duly published.

 

196. Powers conferrable on curator.-

 

The District Judge may authorise the curator to take possession of the property either generally, or until security is given by the party in possession, or until inventories of the property have been made, or for any other purpose necessary for securing the property from misappropriation or waste by the party in possession:


Provided that it shall be in the discretion of the Judge to allow the party in possession to continue in such possession on giving security or not, and any continuance in possession shall be subject to such orders as the Judge may issue touching inventories, or the securing of deeds or other effects.


197. Prohibition of exercise of certain powers by curators.-

 

(1) Where a certificate has been granted under Part X or under the Succession Certificate Act, 1889 1*, (7 of 1889.) or a grant of Probate or letters of administration has been made, a curator appointed under this Part shall not exercise any authority lawfully belonging to the holder of the certificate or to the executor or administrator. Payment of debts, etc., to curator.

 

(2) Payment of debts, etc., to curator.-

 

All person who have paid debts or rents to a curator authorised by a Court to receive them shall be indemnified, and the curator shall be responsible for the
payment thereof to the person who has obtained the certificate, probate or letters of administration, as the case may be.

 

198. Curator to give security and may receive remuneration.-

 

(1) The District Judge shall take from the curator security for the faithful discharge of his trust, and for rendering satisfactory accounts of the same as hereinafter provided, and may authorise him to receive out of the property such remuneration, in no case exceeding five per centum on the moveable property and on the annual profits of the immoveable property, as the District Judge thinks reasonable.

 


(2) All surplus money realized by the curator shall be paid into Court, and invested in public securities for the benefit of the persons entitled thereto upon adjudication of the summary proceeding.

 


(3) Security shall be required from the curator with all reasonable despatch, and where it is practicable, shall be taken generally to answer all cases for which the person may be afterwards appointed curator; but no delay in the taking of security shall prevent the Judge from immediately investing the curator with the
powers of his office. Report from Collector where estate includes revenue-paying land.

 


199. Report from Collector where estate includes revenue-paying land.-

 

(1) Where the estate of the deceased person consists wholly or in part of land paying revenue to Government, in all matters regarding the property of summoning the party in possession, of appointing a curator, or of nominating individuals to that appointment, the District Judge shall demand a report from the Collector, and the Collector shall thereupon furnish the same:

 


Provided that in cases of urgency the Judge may proceed, in the first instance, without such report.

 


(2) The Judge shall not be obliged to act in conformity with any such report, but, in case of his acting otherwise than according to such report, he shall immediately forward a statement of his reasons to the High Court, and the High Court, if it is dissatisfied with such reasons, shall direct the Judge to proceed conformably to the report of the Collector.

 


200. Institution and defence of suits.-

 

The curator shall be subject to all orders of the District Judge regarding the institution or the defence of suits, and all suits may be instituted or defended
in the name of the curator on behalf of the estate:

 


Provided that an express authority shall be requisite in the order of the curator's appointment for the collection of debts or rents; but such express authority shall enable the curator to give a full acquittance for any sums of money received by virtue thereof.

 


201. Allowances to apparent owners pending custody by curator.-

 


Pending the custody of the property by the curator, the District Judge may make such allowances to parties having a prima facie right thereto as upon a summary investigation of the rights and circumstances of the parties interested he considers necessary, and may, at his discretion, take security for the repayment thereof with interest, in the event of the party being found, upon the adjudication of the summary proceeding, not to be entitled thereto.

 

202. Accounts to be filed by curator.-

 

The curator shall file monthly accounts in abstract, and shall, on the expiry of each period of three months, if his administration lasts so long, and, upon giving
up the possession of the property, file a detailed account of his administration to the satisfaction of the District Judge.


203. Inspection of accounts and right of interested party to keep duplicate.-

 

(1) The accounts of the curator shall be open to the inspection of all parties interested; and it shall be competent for any such interested party to appoint a separate person to keep a duplicate account of all receipts and payments by the curator.


(2) If it is found that the accounts of the curator are in arrear, or that they are erroneous or incomplete, or if the curator does not produce them whenever he is ordered to do so by the District Judge, he shall be punishable with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees for every such default.


204. Bar to appointment of second curator for same property.-

 

If the Judge of any district has appointed a curator, in respect of the whole of the property of a deceased person, such appointment shall preclude the Judge of any other district within the same State from appointing any other curator, but the appointment of a curator in respect of a portion of the property of the deceased shall not preclude the appointment within the same State of another curator in
respect of the residue or any portion thereof:

 


Provided that no Judge shall appoint a curator or entertain a summary proceeding in respect of property which is the subject of a summary proceeding previously instituted under this Part before another Judge:

 


Provided, further, that if two or more curators are appointed by different Judges for several parts of an estate, the High Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the appointment of one curator of the whole property.

 


205. Limitation of time for application for curator.-

 

An application under this Part to the District Judge must be made within six months of the death of the proprietor whose property is claimed by right in succession.


206. Bar to enforcement of Part against public settlement or legal directions by deceased.-

 

Nothing in this Part shall be deemed to authorise the contravention of any public act of settlement or of any legal directions given by a deceased proprietor of any property for the possession of his property after his decease in the event of
minority or otherwise, and, in every such case, as soon as the Judge having jurisdiction over the property of a deceased person is satisfied of the existence of such directions, he shall give effect thereto.

 

207. Court of Wards to be made curator in case of minors having property subject to its jurisdiction.-

 

Nothing in this Part shall be deemed to authorise any disturbance of the possession of a Court of Wards of any property; and in case a minor, or other disqualified person whose property is subject to the Court of Wards, is the party
on whose behalf application is made under this Part, the District Judge, if he determines to summon the party in possession and to appoint a curator, shall invest the Court of Wards with the curatorship of the estate pending the proceeding without taking security as aforesaid; and if the minor or other disqualified person, upon the adjudication of the summary proceeding, appears to be entitled to the property, possession shall be delivered to the Court of Wards.

 


208. Saving of right to bring suit.-

 

Nothing contained in this Part shall be any impediment to the bringing of a suit either by the party whose application may have been rejected before or after the
summoning of the party in possession, or by the party who may have been evicted from the possession under this Part.

 


209. Effect of decision of summary proceeding.-

 

The decision of a District Judge in a summary proceeding under this Part shall have no other effect than that of settling the actual possession; but for this purpose it shall be final, and shall not be subject to any appeal or review.

 

                                             PART VIII


             REPRESENTATIVE TITLE TO PROPERTY OF DECEASED ON SUCCESSION

 


210. Appointment of public curators.-

 

The State Government may appoint public curators for any district or number of districts; and the District Judge having jurisdiction shall nominate such public
curators in all cases where the choice of a curator is left discretionary with him under this Part.

 


211. Character and property of executor or administrator as such.-


(1) The executor or administrator, as the case may be, of a deceased person is his legal representative for all purposes, and all the property of the deceased person vests in him as such.

 


(2) When the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, 1*[Jaina or Parsi] or an exempted person, nothing herein contained shall vest in an executor or administrator any property of the deceased person which would otherwise have passed by survivorship to some other person.

 


212. Right to intestate's property.-

 

(1) No right to any part of the property of a person who has died intestate can be established in any Court of Justice, unless letters of administration have first been
granted by a Court of competent jurisdiction.

 

(2) This section shall not apply in the case of the intestacy of a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina, 2*[Indian Christian or Parsi].

 

213. Right as executor or legatee when established.-

(1) No right as executor or legatee can be established in any Court of Justice,
unless a Court of competent jurisdiction in 3*[India] has granted probate of the will under which the right is claimed, or has granted letters of administration with the will or with a copy of an authenticated copy of the will annexed.


4*[(2) This section shall not apply in the case of wills made by Muhammadans, and shall only apply--


(i) in the case of wills made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina where such wills are of the classes specified in clauses (a) and (b) of section 57; and

 

(ii) in the case of wills made by any Parsi dying, after the commencement of the Indian Succession (Amendment) Act, 1962, (16 of 1962.) where such wills are made within the local limits of the 1*[ordinary original civil jurisdiction] of the High Courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, and where such wills are made outside those limits, in so far as they relate to immovable property situate within those limits.]

 

214. Proof of representative title a condition precedent to recovery through the Courts of debts from debtors of deceased persons.-

(1) No Court shall--


(a) pass a decree against a debtor of a deceased person for payment of his debt to a person claiming on succession to be entitled to the effects of the deceased person or to any part thereof, or

 


(b) proceed, upon an application of a person claiming to be so entitled, to execute against such a debtor a decree or order for the payment of his debt, except on the production, by the person so claiming of--

 


(i) a probate or letters of administration evidencing the grant to him of administration to the estate of the deceased, or

 


(ii) a certificate granted under section 31 or section 32 of the Administrator General's Act, 1913, (3 of 1913.) and having the debt mentioned therein, or

 


(iii) a succession certificate granted under Part X and having the debt specified therein, or

 


(iv) a certificate granted under the Succession Certificate Act, 1889 1*, (7 of 1889.) or

 


(v) a certificate granted under Bombay Regulation No. VIII of 1827, and, if granted after the first day of May, 1889, having the debt specified therein.

 


(2) The word "debt" in sub-section (1) includes any debt except rent, revenue or profits payable in respect of land used for agricultural purposes.

 

215. Effection certificate of subsequent probate or letters of administration.-

 

(1) A grant of probate or letters of administration in respect of an estate shall be deemed to supersede any certificate previously granted under Part X or under the Succession Certificate Act, 18891* (7 of 1889), or Bombay Regulation No. VIII of 1827, in respect of any debts or securities included in the estate.

 


(2) When at the time of the grant of the probate or letters any suit or other proceeding instituted by the holder of any such certificate regarding any such debt or security is pending, the person to whom the grant is made shall, on applying to the Court in which the suit or proceeding is pending, be entitled to take the place of the holder of the certificate in the suit or proceeding:

 

216. Grantee of probate or administration alone to sue, etc., until same revoked.-

 

After any grant of probate or letters of administration, no other than the person to whom the same may have been granted shall have power to sue or prosecute any suit, or otherwise act as representative of the deceased, throughout the State
in which the same may have been granted, until such probate or letters of administration has or have been recalled or revoked.

 

                                             PART IX


           PROBATE, LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ASSETS
           OF DECEASED


217. Application of Part.-

 

Save as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force, all grants of probate and letters of administration with the will annexed and the administration of the assets of the deceased in cases of intestate succession shall be made or carried out, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of this Part.

 

                                       CHAPTER I


             Of Grant of Probate and Letters of Administration


218. To whom administration may be granted, where deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person.-

 

(1) If the deceased has died intestate and was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist,
Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, administration of his estate may be granted to any person who, according to the rules for the distribution of the estate applicable in the case of such deceased, would be entitled to the whole or any part of such deceased's estate.

 


(2) When several such persons apply for such administration, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to grant it to any one or more of them.

 


(3) When no such person applies, it may be granted to a creditor of the deceased.

 


219. Where deceased is not a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person.-

 

If the deceased has died intestate and was not a person belonging to any of the classes referred to in section 218, those who are connected with him, either by marriage or by consanguinity, are entitled to obtain letters of administration of his
estate and effects in the order and according to the rules hereinafter stated, namely:--

 


(a) If the deceased has left a widow, administration shall be granted to the widow, unless the Court sees cause to exclude her, either on the ground of some personal disqualification, or because she has no interest in the estate of the deceased.

 

220. Effect of letters of administration.-

 

Letters of administration entitle the administrator to all rights belonging to the intestate as effectually as if the administration had been granted at the moment after his death.

 


221. Acts not validated by administration.-

 

Letters of administration do not render valid any intermediate acts of the
administrator tending to the diminution or damage of the intestate's estate.

 


222. Probate only to appointed executor.-

 

(1) Probate shall be granted only to an executor appointed by the will.


(2) The appointment may be expressed or by necessary implication.

 

223. Persons to whom probate cannot be granted.-

 

Probate cannot be granted to any person who is a minor or is of unsound mind 2*[nor to any association of individuals unless it is a company which satisfies
the conditions prescribed by rules to be made 4*[, by notification in the Official Gazette] by the 3*[State Government] in this behalf].

 

224. Grant of probate to several executors simultaneously or at different times.-

 

When several executors are appointed, probate may be granted to them all simultaneously or at different times.

 

225. Separate probate of codicil discovered after grant of probate.-

 

 

(1) If a codicil is discovered after the grant of probate, a separate probate of that codicil may be granted to the executor, if it in no way repeals the appointment of executors made by the will.

 


(2) If different executors are appointed by the codicil, the probate of the will shall be revoked, and a new probate granted of the will and the codicil together.

 


226. Accrual of representation to surviving executor.-

 

 

When probate has been granted to several executors, and one of them dies,
the entire representation of the testator accrues to the surviving executor or executors.

 


227. Effect of probate.-

 

 

Probate of a will when granted established the will from the death of the testator, and renders valid all intermediate acts of the executor as such.

 


228. Administration, with copy annexed, of authenticated copy of will proved abroad.-

 

 

When a will has been proved and deposited in a Court of competent jurisdiction situated beyond the limits of the State, whether within or beyond the limits of 1*[India], and a properly authenticated copy of the will is produced, letters of
administration may be granted with a copy of such copy annexed.

 


229. Grant of administration where executor has not renounced.-

 


When a person appointed an executor has not renounced the executorship, letters of administration shall not be granted to any other person until a citation has been issued, calling upon the executor to accept or renounce his executorship :

 

Provided that, when one or more of several executors have proved a will, the Court may, on the death of the survivor of those who have proved, grant letters of administration without citing those who have not proved.

 

230. Form and effect of renunciation of executor-ship.-

 

The renunciation may be made orally in the presence of the Judge, or by a
writing signed by the person renouncing, and when made shall preclude him from ever thereafter applying for probate of the will appointing him executor.

 

231. Procedure where executor renounces or fails to accept within time limited.-

 

If an executor renounces or fails to accept an executorship within the time limited for the acceptance or refusal thereof, the will may be proved and letters of administration, with a copy of the will annexed, may be granted to the person who would be entitled to administration in case of intestacy.


232. Grant of administration to universal or residuary legatees.-


When--


(a) the deceased has made a will, but has not appointed an executor, or

 


(b) the deceased has appointed an executor who is legally incapable or refuses to act, or who has died before the testator or before he has proved the will, or

 


(c) the executor dies after having proved the will, but before he has administered all the estate of the deceased, an universal or a residuary legatee may be admitted to prove the will, and letters of administration with the will annexed may be granted to him of the whole estate, or of so much thereof as may be unadministered.

 


233. Right to administration of representative of deceased residuary legatee.-

 

When a residuary legatee who has a beneficial interest survives the testator, but dies before the estate has been fully administered, his representative has the same right to administration with the will annexed as such residuary legatee.

 


234. Grant of administration where no executor, nor residuary legatee nor representative of such legatee.-

 

When there is no executor and no residuary legatee or representative of a residuary legatee, or he declines or is incapable to act, or cannot be found, the person or persons who would be entitled to the administration of the estate of
the deceased if he had died intestate, or any other legatee having a beneficial interest, or a creditor, may be admitted to prove the will, and letters of administration may be granted to him or them accordingly.

 

235. Citation before grant of administration to legatee other than universal or residuary.-

 

Letters of administration with the will annexed shall not be granted to any legatee other than an universal or a residuary legatee, until a citation has been issued and published in the manner hereinafter mentioned, calling on the next-of-kin to accept or refuse letters of administration.


236. To whom administration may not be granted.-

 

Letters of administration cannot be granted to any person who is a minor or is of
unsound mind, 1*[nor to any association of individuals unless it is a company which satisfies the conditions prescribed by rules to be made 2*[", by notification in the Official Gazette,"] by the 3*[State Government] in this behalf].


2*[236A. Laying of rules before State Legislature.-Every rule made by the State Government under section 223 and section 236 shall be laid, as soon as it is made, before the State Legislature."].

 

                                       CHAPTER II

 
                                   Of Limited Grants


                              Grants limited in duration

 

237. Probate of copy or draft of lost will.-

 

When a will has been lost or mislaid since the testator's death, or has been destroyed by wrong or accident and not by any act of the testator, and a copy or
the draft of the will has been preserved, probate may be granted of such copy or draft, limited until the original or a properly authenticated copy of it is produced.

 


238. Probate of contents of lost or destroyed will.-

 

When a will has been lost or destroyed and no copy has been made nor the draft
preserved, probate may be granted of its contents if they can be established by evidence.


239. Probate of copy where original exists.-

 

When the will is in the possession of a person residing out of the State in which
application for probate is made, who has refused or neglected to deliver it up, but a copy has been transmitted to the executor, and it is necessary for the interests of the estate that probate should be granted without waiting for the arrival of the original, probate may be granted of the copy so transmitted, limited until the will or an authenticated copy of it is produced.

 


240. Administration until will produced.-

 

Where no will of the deceased is forthcoming, but there is reason to believe that there is a will in existence, letters of administration may be granted, limited until the will or an authenticated copy of it is produced.

 

241. Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent executor.-

 

When any executor is absent from the State in which application is made, and there is no executor within the State willing to act, letters of administration, with the will annexed, may be granted to the attorney or agent of the absent executor, for the use and benefit of his principal, limited until he shall obtain probate or
letters of administration granted to himself.

 


242. Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent person who, if present, would be entitled to administer.-

 

When any person to whom, if present, letters of administration, with the will
annexed, might be granted, is absent from the State, letters of administration, with the will annexed may be granted to his attorney or agent, limited as mentioned in section 241.

 


243. Administration to attorney of absent person entitled to administer in case of intestacy.-

 

When a person entitled to administration in case of intestacy is absent from the State, and no person equally entitled is willing to act, letters of administration
may be granted to the attorney or agent of the absent person, limited as mentioned in section 241.

 


244. Administration during minority of sole executor or residuary legatee.-

 

When a minor is sole executor or sole residuary legatee, letters of administration, with the will annexed, may be granted to the legal guardian of such minor or to such other person as the Court may think fit until the minor has attained his majority at which period, and not before, probate of the will shall be granted to him.


245. Administration during minority of several executors or residuary legatees.-

 

When there are two or more minor executors and no executor who has attained majority, or two or more residuary legatees and no residuary legatee who has attained majority, the grant shall be limited until one of them shall have attained his majority.

 


246. Administration for use and benefit of lunatic or minor.-

 

If a sole executor or a sole universal or residuary legatee, or a person who would be solely entitled to the estate of the intestate according
to the rule for the distribution of intestates' estates applicable in
the case of the deceased, is a minor or lunatic, letters of
administration, with or without the will annexed, as the case may be,
shall be granted to the person to whom the care of his estate has been
committed by competent authority, or, if there is no such person, to
such other person as the Court may think fit to appoint, for the use
and benefit of the minor or lunatic until he attains majority or
becomes of sound mind, as the case may be.


247. Administration pendente lite.-

 

Pending any suit touching the validity of the will of a deceased person or for obtaining or revoking any probate or any grant of letters of administration, the Court may appoint an administrator of the estate of such deceased person, who
shall have all the rights and powers of a general administrator, other than the right of distributing such estate, and every such administrator shall be subject to the immediate control of the Court and shall act under its direction.



248. Probate limited to purpose specified in will.-

 

If an executor is appointed for any limited purpose specified in the will, the
probate shall be limited to that purpose, and if he should appoint an attorney or agent to take administration on his behalf, the letters of administration, with the will annexed, shall be limited accordingly.

 


249. Administration, with will annexed, limited to particular purpose.-

 

If an executor appointed generally gives an authority to an attorney or agent to prove a will on his behalf, and the authority is limited to a particular purpose, the letters of administration, with the will annexed, shall be limited accordingly.

 


250. Administration limited to property in which person has beneficial interest.-

 

Where a person dies, leaving property of which he was the sole or surviving trustee, or in which he had no beneficial interest on his own account, and leaves no general representative, or one who is unable or unwilling to act as such, letters of
administration, limited to such property, may be granted to the beneficiary, or to some other person on his behalf.

 


251. Administration limited to suit.-

 

When it is necessary that the representative of a person deceased be made a party to a pending suit, and the executor, or person entitled to administration is unable or unwilling to act, letters of administration may be granted to the
nominee of a party in such suit, limited for the purpose of representing the deceased in the said suit, or in any other cause or suit which may be commenced in the same or in any other Court between the parties, or any other parties, touching the matters at issue in the said cause or suit, and until a final decree shall be made therein and carried into complete execution.

 

252. Administration limited to purpose of becoming party to suit to be brought against administrator.-

 

If, at the expiration of twelve months from the date of any probate or letters of administration, the executor or administrator to whom the same has been granted is absent from the State within which the Court which has granted the probate or letters of administration exercises jurisdiction, the Court may grant, to any
person whom it may think fit, letters of administration limited to the purpose of becoming and being made a party to a suit to be brought against the executor or administrator, and carrying the decree which may be made therein into effect.

 


253. Administration limited to collection and preservation of deceased's property.-

 

In any case in which it appears necessary for preserving the property of a deceased person, the Court within whose jurisdiction any of the property is situate may grant to any person, whom such Court may think fit, letters of administration limited to the collection and preservation of the property of the deceased and to
the giving of discharges for debts due to his estate, subject to the directions of the Court.

 


254. Appointment, as administrator, of person other than one who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to administration.-

 

(1) When a person has died intestate, or leaving a will of which there is no executor willing and competent to act or where the executor is, at the time of the death of such person, resident out of the State, and it appears to the Court to be necessary or convenient to appoint some person to administer the estate or any part thereof, other than the person who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to a grant of administration, the Court may, in its discretion, having regard to consanguinity, amount of interest, the safety of the estate and probability that it will be properly administered, appoint such person as it thinks fit to be administrator.

 


(2) In every such case letters of administration may be limited
or not as the Court thinks fit.



255. Probate or administration, with will annexed, subject to exception.-

 

Whenever the nature of the case requires that an exception be made, probate of a will, or letters of administration with the will annexed, shall be granted subject to such exception.

 


256. Administration with exception.-

 

Whenever the nature of the case requires that an exception be made, letters of administration shall be granted subject to such exception.

 

257. Probate or administration of rest.-

 

Whenever a grant with exception of probate, or of letters of administration with or without the will annexed, has been made, the person entitled to probate or administration of the remainder of the deceased's estate may take a grant of probate or letters of administration, as the case may be, of the rest of the deceased's estate.

 

258. Grant of effects unadministered.-

 

If an executor to whom probate has been granted has died, leaving a part of the testator's estate unadministered, a new representative may be appointed for the
purpose of administering such part of the estate.

 


259. Rules as to grants of effects unadministered.-

 

In granting letters of administration of an estate not fully administered, the
Court shall be guided by the same rules as apply to original grants, and shall grant letters of administration to those persons only to whom original grants might have been made.

 


260. Administration when limited grant expired and still some part of estate unadministered.-

 

When a limited grant has expired, by efflux of time, or the happening of the event or contingency on which it was limited, and there is still some part of the deceased's estate unadministered, letters of administration shall be granted to those persons to whom original grants might have been made.

 

                                          CHAPTER III


                          Alteration and Revocation of Grants

 


261. What errors may be rectified by Court.-

 

Errors in names and descriptions, or in setting forth the time and place of the deceased's death or the purpose in a limited grant, may be rectified by the Court
and the grant of probate or letters of administration may be altered and amended accordingly.

 


262. Procedure where codicil discovered after grant of administration with will annexed.-

 

If, after the grant of letters of administration with the will annexed, a codicil is discovered, it may be added to the grant on due proof and identification, and the grant may be altered and amended accordingly.

 


263. Revocation or annulment for just cause.-

 

The grant of probate or letters of administration may be revoked or annulled for just cause.


Explanation.--Just cause shall be deemed to exist where--


(a) the proceedings to obtain the grant were defective in substance; or

 

(b) the grant was obtained fraudulently by making a false suggestion, or by concealing from the Court something material to the case; or

 


(c) the grant was obtained by means of an untrue allegation of a fact essential in point of law to justify the grant, though such allegation was made in ignorance or
inadvertently; or

 


(d) the grant has become useless and inoperative through circumstances; or

 


(e) the person to whom the grant was made has wilfully and without reasonable cause omitted to exhibit an inventory or account in accordance with the provisions
of Chapter VII of this Part, or has exhibited under that Chapter an inventory or account which is untrue in a material respect.

 

                                         CHAPTER IV

 
                Of the Practice in granting and revoking Probates and
                Letters of Administration

 


264. Jurisdiction of District Judge in granting and revoking probates, etc.-

 

(1) The District Judge shall have jurisdiction in granting and revoking probates and letters of administration in all cases within his district.

 


(2) Except in cases to which section 57 applies, no Court in any local area beyond the limits of the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, 1* shall, where the deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, receive applications for probate or letters of administration until the State Government has, by a notification in the Official Gazette, authorised it so to do.

 


265. Power to appoint delegate of District Judge to deal with non-contentious cases.-

 

(1) The High Court may appoint such judicial officers within any district as it thinks fit to act for the District Judge as delegates to grant probate and letters of administration in non-contentious cases, within such local limits as it may prescribe:


Provided that, in the case of High Courts not established by Royal Charter, such appointments shall not be without the previous sanction of the State Government.


(2) Persons so appointed shall be called "District Delegates".

 

266. District Judge's powers as to grant of probate and
administration.-The District Judge shall have the like powers and
authority in relation to the granting of probate and letters of
administration, and all matters connected therewith, as are by law
vested in him in relation to any civil suit or proceeding pending in
his Court.


267. District Judge may order person to produce testamentary papers.-

 

(1) The District Judge may order any person to produce and bring into Court any paper or writing, being or purporting to be testamentary, which may be shown to be in the possession or under the control of such person.

 


(2) If it is not shown that any such paper or writing is in the possession or under the control of such person, but there is reason to believe that he has the knowledge of any such paper or writing, the Court may direct such person to attend for the purpose of being examined respecting the same.

 


(3) Such person shall be bound to answer truly such questions as may be put to him by the Court, and, if so ordered, to produce and bring in such paper or writing, and shall be subject to the like punishment under the Indian Penal Code, in case of default in not attending or in not answering such questions or not bringing in such paper or writing, as he would have been subject to in case he had been a party to a suit and had made such default.

 


(4) The costs of the proceeding shall be in the discretion of the Judge.

 

268. Proceedings of District Judge's Court in relation to probate and administration-

 

The proceedings of the Court of the District Judge in relation to the granting of probate and letters of administration shall, save as hereinafter otherwise provided, be regulated, so far as the circumstances of the case permit, by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. (5 of 1908.)


269. When and how District Judge to interfere for protection of property.-

 

(1) Until probate is granted of the will of a deceased person, or an administrator of his estate is constituted, the District Judge, within whose jurisdiction any part of the property of the deceased person is situate, is authorised and required to interfere for the protection of such property at the instance of any person claiming to be interested therein, and in all other cases where the Judge considers that the property incurs any risk of loss or damage; and for that purpose, if he thinks fit, to appoint an officer to take and keep possession of the property.

 


(2) This section shall not apply when the deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, nor shall it apply to any part of the property of an Indian Christian who has died intestate.

 


270. When probate or administration may be granted by District Judge.-

 

Probate of the will or letters of administration to the estate of a deceased person may be granted by a District Judge under the seal of his Court, if it appears by a petition, verified as hereinafter provided, of the person applying for the same that the testator or intestate, as the case may be, at the time of his decease had a fixed place of abode, or any property, moveable or immoveable, within the
jurisdiction of the Judge.

 


271. Disposal of application made to Judge of district in which deceased had no fixed abode.-

 

When the application is made to the Judge of a district in which the deceased had no fixed abode at the time of his death, it shall be in the discretion of the Judge to refuse the application, if in his judgment it could be disposed of more justly or
conveniently in another district, or, where the application is for letters of administration, to grant them absolutely, or limited to the property within his own jurisdiction.

 


272. Probate and letters of administration may be granted by Delegate.-

 

Probate and letters of administration may, upon application for that purpose to any District Delegate, be granted by him in any case in which there is no contention, if it appears by petition, verified as hereinafter provided, that the testator or intestate, as the case may be, at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode within the jurisdiction of such Delegate.

 


273. Conclusiveness of probate or letters of administration.-

 


Probate or letters of administration shall have effect over all the property and estate, moveable or immoveable, of the deceased, throughout the State in which the same is or are granted, and shall be conclusive as to the representative title against all debtors of the deceased, and all persons holding property which belongs to him, and shall afford full indemnity to all debtors, paying their debts and all persons delivering up such property to the person to whom such probate
or letters of administration have been granted:

 


Provided that probates and letters of administration granted--


(a) by a High Court, or


(b) by a District Judge, where the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode situate within the jurisdiction of such Judge, and such Judge certifies that the value of the property and estate affected beyond the limits of the State does not exceed ten thousand rupees, shall, unless otherwise directed by the grant, have like effect throughout 1*[the other States 2*].

 


3*[The proviso to this section shall apply in 4*[India] 5* after the separation of Burma and Aden from India to probates and letters of administration granted in Burma and Aden before the date of the separation, or after that date in proceedings which were pending at that date.]

 


6*[The proviso shall also apply in 4*[India] 7* 8* after the separation of Pakistan from India to probates and letters of administration granted before the date of the separation, or after that date in proceedings pending at that date, in any of the
territories which on that date constituted Pakistan.]

 

274. Transmission to High Courts of certificate of grants under proviso to section 273.-

 

(1) Where probate or letters of administration has or have been granted by a High Court or District Judge with the effect referred to in the proviso to section 273, the High Court or District Judge shall send a certificate thereof to the following
Courts, namely:--

 


(a) when the grant has been made by a High Court, to each of the other High Courts;

 


(b) when the grant has been made by a District Judge, to the High Court to which such District Judge is subordinate and to each of the other High Courts.

 


(2) Every certificate referred to in sub-section (1) shall be made as nearly as circumstances admit in the form set forth in Schedule IV, and such certificate shall be filed by the High Court receiving the same.

 


(3) Where any portion of the assets has been stated by the petitioner, as hereinafter provided in sections 276 and 278, to be situate within the jurisdiction of a District Judge in another State, the Court required to send the certificate referred to in sub-section (1) shall send a copy thereof to such District Judge, and such copy shall be filed by the District Judge receiving the same.

 

275. Conclusiveness of application for probate or administration
if properly made and verified.-The application for probate or letters
of administration, if made and verified in the manner hereinafter
provided, shall be conclusive for the purpose of authorising the grant
of probate or administration; and no such grant shall be impeached by
reason only that the testator or intestate had no fixed place of abode
or no property within the district at the time of his death, unless by
a proceeding to revoke the grant if obtained by a fraud upon the
Court.


276. Petition for probate.-

 

(1) Application for probate or for letters of administration, with the will annexed, shall be made by a petition distinctly written in English or in the language in ordinary use in proceedings before the Court in which the application is made,
with the will or, in the cases mentioned in sections 237, 238 and 239, a copy, draft, or statement of the contents thereof, annexed, and stating--


(a) the time of the testator's death.


(b) that the writing annexed is his last will and testament,


(c) that it was duly executed,


(d) the amount of assets which are likely to come to the petitioner's hands, and


(e) when the application is for probate, that the petitioner is the executor named in the will.


(2) In addition to these particulars, the petition shall further state,--

 


(a) when the application is to the District Judge, that the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode, or had some property, situate within the
jurisdiction of the Judge; and

 


(b) when the application is to a District Delegate, that the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode within the jurisdiction of such Delegate.

 


(3) Where the application is to the District Judge and any portion of the assets likely to come to the petitioner's hands is situate in another State, the petition shall further state the amount of such assets in each State and the District Judges within whose jurisdiction such assets are situate.

 


277. In what cases translation of will to be annexed to petition. Verification of translation by person other than Court translator.-

 

In cases wherein the will, copy or draft, is written in any language other than English or than that in ordinary use in proceedings before the Court, there shall be a translation thereof annexed to the petition by a translator of the Court, if the language be one for which a translator is appointed; or, if the will, copy or draft, is in any other language, then by any person competent to translate the same, in which case such translation shall be verified by that person in the following manner, namely:--

 

"I (A.B.) do declare that I read and perfectly understand the language and character of the original, and that the above is a true and accurate translation thereof.".

 

278. Petition for letters of administration.-

 

(1) Application for letters of administration shall be made by petition distinctly written as aforesaid and stating--


(a) the time and place of the destator's death;

 


(b) the family or other relatives of the deceased, and their respective residences;

 


(c) the right in which the petitioner claims;

 


(d) the amount of assets which are likely to come to the petitioner's hands;

 


(e) when the application is to the District Judge, that the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode, or had some property, situate within the
jurisdiction of the Judge; and

 


(f) when the application is to a District Delegate, that the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode within the jurisdiction of such Delegate.

 


(2) Where the application is to the District Judge and any portion of the assets likely to come to the petitioner's hands is situate in another State, the petition shall further state the amount of such assets in each State and the District Judges within whose jurisdiction such assets are situate.

 


279. Addition to statement in petition, etc., for probate or letters of administration in certain cases.-

 

(1) Every person applying to any of the Courts mentioned in the proviso to section 273 for probate of a will or letters of administration of an estate intended
to have effect throughout 1*[India], shall state in his petition, in addition to the matters respectively required by section 276 and section 278, that to the best of his belief no application has been made to any other Court for a probate of the same will or for letters of administration of the same estate, intended to have such effect as last aforesaid, or, where any such application has been made, the Court to which it was made, the person or persons by whom it was made and the
proceedings (if any) had thereon.

 


(2) The Court to which any such application is made under the proviso to section 273 may, if it thinks fit, reject the same.


280. Petition for probate, etc., to be signed and verified.-

 

The petition for probate or letters of administration shall in all cases be subscribed by the petitioner and his pleader, if any, and shall be verified by the petitioner in the following manner, namely:--

 


"I (A.B.), the petitioner in the above petition, declare that what is stated therein is true to the best of my information and belief.".

 

281. Verification of petition for probate, by one witness to will.-

 

Where the application is for probate, the petition shall also be verified by at least one of the witnesses to the will (when procurable) in the manner or to the effect following, namely:--

 


"I (C.D.), one of the witnesses to the last will and testament of the testator mentioned in the above petition, declare that

 

282. Punishment for false averment in petition or declaration.-

 

If any petition or declaration which is hereby required to be verified contains any averment which the person making the verification knows or believes to be false, such person shall be deemed to have committed an offence under section 193 of the Indian Penal Code. (45 of 1860.)

 


283. Powers of District Judge.-

 

(1) In all cases the District Judge or District Delegate may, if he thinks proper,--

 


(a) examine the petitioner in person, upon oath;

 


(b) require further evidence of the due execution of the will or the right of the petitioner to the letters of administration, as the case may be;

 


(c) issue citations calling upon all persons claiming to have any interest in the estate of the deceased to come and see the proceedings before the grant of probate or letters of administration.

 


(2) The citation shall be fixed up in some conspicuous part of the court-house, and also in the office of the Collector of the district and otherwise published or made known in such manner as the Judge or District Delegate issuing the same may direct.

 


(3) Where any portion of the assets has been stated by the petitioner to be situate within the jurisdiction of a District Judge in another State, the District Judge issuing the same shall cause a copy of the citation to be sent to such other District Judge, who shall publish the same in the same manner as if it were a citation
issued by himself, and shall certify such publication to the District Judge who issued the citation.

 

284. Caveats against grant of probate or administration.-

(1)Caveats against the grant of probate or administration may be lodged with the District Judge or a District Delegate.


(2) Immediately on any caveat being lodged with any District Delegate, he shall send copy thereof to the District Judge.


(3) Immediately on a caveat being entered with the District Judge, a copy thereof shall be given to the District Delegate, if any, within whose jurisdiction it is alleged the deceased had a fixed place of abode at the time of his death, and to any other Judge or District Delegate to whom it may appear to the District Judge expedient to transmit the same.


Form of caveat.


(4) The caveat shall be made as nearly as circumstances admit in the form set forth in Schedule V.

 

285. After entry of caveat, no proceeding taken on petition until after notice to caveator.-

 

No proceeding shall be taken on a petition for probate or letters of administration after a caveat against the grant thereof has been entered with the Judge or District Delegate to whom the application has been made or notice has been given of its
entry with some other Delegate, until after such notice to the person by whom the same has been entered as the Court may think reasonable.


286. District Delegate when not to grant probate or administration.-

 

A District Delegate shall not grant probate or letters of administration in any case in which there is contention as to the grant, or in which it otherwise appears to him that probate or letters of administration ought not to be granted in his Court.

 


Explanation.--"Contention" means the appearance of any one in person, or by his recognised agent, or by a pleader duly appointed to act on his behalf, to oppose the proceeding.

 


287. Power to transmit statement to District Judge in doubtful cases where no contention.-

 

In every case in which there is no contention, but it appears to the District Delegate doubtful whether the probate or letters of administration should or should not be granted, or when any question arises in relation to the grant, or
application for the grant, of any probate or letters of administration, the District Delegate may, if he thinks proper, transmit a statement of the matter in question to the District Judge, who may direct the District Delegate to proceed in the matter of the application, according to such instructions as to the Judge may seem
necessary, or may forbid any further proceeding by the District Delegate in relation to the matter of such application, leaving the party applying for the grant in question to make application to the Judge.

 

288. Procedure where there is contention, or District Delegate thinks probate or letters of administration should be refused in his Court.-

 

In every case in which there is contention, or the District Delegate is of opinion that the probate or letters of administration should be refused in his Court, the petition, with any documents which may have been filed therewith, shall be returned to the person by whom the application was made, in order that the same may be presented to the District Judge, unless the District Delegate thinks it
necessary, for the purposes of justice, to impound the same, which he is hereby authorised to do; and, in that case, the same shall be sent by him to the District Judge.


289. Grant of probate to be under seal of Court.-

 

When it appears to the District Judge or District Delegate that probate of a will
should be granted, he shall grant the same under the seal of his Court in the form set forth in Schedule VI.

 


290. Grant of letters of administration to be under seal of Court.-

 

When it appears to the District Judge or District Delegate that letters of administration to the estate of a person deceased, with or without a copy of the will annexed, should be granted, he shall grant the same under the seal of his Court in the form set forth in Schedule VII.

 

291. Administration-bond.-

(1) Every person to whom any grant of letters of administration, other than a grant under section 241, is committed, shall give a bond to the District Judge with one or more surety or sureties, engaging for the due collection, getting in, and administering the estate of the deceased, which bond shall be in such form as the Judge may, by general or special order, direct.

 


(2) When the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person--

 


(a) the exception made by sub-section (1) in respect of a grant under section 241 shall not operate.

 


(b) the District Judge may demand a like bond from any person to whom probate is granted.

 


292. Assignment of administration-bond.-

 

The Court may, on application made by petition and on being satisfied that the
engagement of any such bond has not been kept, and upon such terms as to security, or providing that the money received be paid into Court, or otherwise, as the Court may think fit, assign the same to some person, his executors or administrators, who shall thereupon be entitled to sue on the said bond in his or their own name or names as if the same had been originally given to him or them instead of to the Judge of the Court, and shall be entitled to recover thereon, as
trustees for all person interested, the full amount recoverable in respect of any breach thereof.

 


293. Time for grant of probate and administration.-

 

No probate of a will shall be granted until after the expiration of seven clear
days, and no letters of administration shall be granted until after the expiration of fourteen clear days, from the day of the testator or intestate's death.

 


294. Filing of original wills of which probate or administration with will annexed granted.-

 

 

(1) Every District Judge, or District Delegate, shall file and preserve all original wills, of which probate or letters of administration with the will annexed may be granted by him, among the records of his Court, until some public registry for
wills is established.

 


(2) The State Government shall make regulations for the preservation and inspection of the wills so filed.

 

295. Procedure in contentious cases.-

 

In any case before the District Judge in which there is contention, the proceedings shall take, as nearly as may be, the form of a regular suit, according to
the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908.) in which the petitioner for probate or letters of administration, as the case may be, shall be the plaintiff, and the person who has appeared to oppose the grant shall be the defendant.


296. Surrender of revoked probate or letters of administration.-

 


(1) When a grant of probate or letters of administration is revoked or annulled under this Act, the person to whom the grant was made shall forthwith deliver up the probate or letters to the Court which made the grant.

 


(2) If such person wilfully and without reasonable cause omits so
to deliver up the probate or letters, he shall be punishable with fine
which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with imprisonment for a
term which may extend to three months, or with both.

 


297. Payment to executor or administrator before probate or administration revoked.-

 

When a grant of probate or letters of administration is revoked, all payments bona fide made to any executor or administrator under such grant before the revocation thereof shall, notwithstanding such revocation, be a legal discharge to the person
making the same; and the executor or administrator who has acted under any such revoked grant may retain and reimburse himself in respect of any payments made by him which the person to whom probate or letters of administration may after wards be granted might have lawfully made.

 


298. Power to refuse letters of administration.-

 

Notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained, it shall, where the deceased was a Muhammadan, Buddhist or exempted person, or a Hindu, Sikh or Jaina to
whom section 57 does not apply, be in the discretion of the Court to make an order refusing, for reasons to be recorded by it in writing, to grant any application for letters of administration made under this Act.

 


299. Appeals from orders of District Judge.-

 

Every order made by a District Judge by virtue of the powers hereby conferred upon him shall be subject to appeal to the High Court in accordance with the
provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908.), applicable to appeals.

 


300. Concurrent jurisdiction of High Court.-

 

(1) The High Court shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the District Judge in the
exercise of all the powers hereby conferred upon the District Judge.

 

(2) Except in cases to which section 57 applies, no High Court, in exercise of the concurrent jurisdiction hereby conferred over any local area beyond the limits of the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay 1* shall, where the deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist,Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, receive applications for probate or letters of administration until the State Government has, by a notification in the Official Gazette, authorised it so to do.

 


301. Removal of executor or administrator and provision for successor.-

 

The High Court may, on application made to it, suspend, remove or discharge any private executor or administrator and provide for the succession of another person to the office of any such executor or administrator who may cease to hold office, and the vesting in such successor of any property belonging to the estate.

 


302. Directions to executor or administrator.-

 

Where probate or letters of administration in respect of any estate has or have been granted under this Act, the High Court may, on application made to it,
give to the executor or administrator any general or special directions in regard to the estate or in regard to the administration thereof.

 

                                                CHAPTER V


                                     Of Executors of their own Wrong


303. Executor of his own wrong.-

 

A person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased, or does any other act which belongs to the office of executor, while there is no rightful executor or
administrator in existence, thereby makes himself an executor of his own wrong.

 

Exceptions.--

 

(1) Intermeddling with the goods of the deceased for the purpose of preserving them or providing for his funeral or for the immediate necessities of his family or property, does not make an executor of his own wrong.

 

(2) Dealing in the ordinary course of business with goods of the deceased received from another does not make an executor of his own wrong.

 

304. Liability of executor of his own wrong.-

 

When a person has so acted as to become an executor of his own wrong, he is answerable to the rightful executor or administrator, or to any creditor or legatee
of the deceased, to the extent of the assets which may have come to his hands after deducting payments made to the rightful executor or administrator, and payments made in due course of administration.

 

                                 CHAPTER VI


            Of the Powers of an Executor or Administrator

 


305. In respect of causes of action surviving deceased and debts due at death.-

 

An executor or administrator has the same power to sue in respect of all causes of action that survive the deceased, and may exercise the same power for the recovery of debts as the deceased has when living.


306. Demands and rights of action of or against deceased survive to and against executor or administrator.-

 

All demands whatsoever and all rights to prosecute or defend any action or special proceeding existing in favour of or against a person at the time of his decease,
survive to and against his executors or administrators; except causes of action for defamation, assault, as defined in the Indian Penal Code, (45 of 1860.) or other personal injuries not causing the death of the party; and except also cases where, after the death of the party, the relief sought could not be enjoyed or granting it would be nugatory.

 

307. Power of executor or administrator to dispose of property.-


(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), an executor or administrator has power to dispose of the property of the deceased, vested in him under section 211, either wholly or in part, in such manner as he may think fit.

 

(2) If the deceased was Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, the general power conferred by subsection (1) shall be subject to the following restrictions and conditions, namely:--

 

(i) The power of an executor to dispose of immoveable property so vested in him is subject to any restriction which may be imposed in this behalf by the will
appointing him, unless probate has been granted to him and the Court which granted the probate permits him by an order in writing, notwithstanding the restriction, to dispose of any immoveable property specified in the
order in a manner permitted by the order.


(ii) An administrator may not, without the previous permission of the Court by which the letters of administration were granted,--

 


(a) mortgage, charge or transfer by sale, gift, exchange or otherwise any immoveable property for the time being vested in him under section 211, or


(b) lease any such property for a term exceeding five years.

 


(iii) A disposal of property by an executor or administrator in contravention of clause (i) or clause (ii), as the case may be, is voidable at the instance of any other person interested in the property.

 


(3) Before any probate or letters of administration is or are granted in such a case, there shall be endorsed thereon or annexed thereto a copy of sub-section (1) and clauses (i) and (iii) of subsection (2) or of sub-section (1) and clauses (ii) and (iii) of subsection (2), as the case may be.

 


(4) A probate or letters of administration shall not be rendered invalid by reason of the endorsement or annexure required by subsection (3) not having been made thereon or attached thereto, not shall the absence of such an endorsement or annexure authorise an executor or administrator to act otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this section.

 


308. General powers of administration.-

 

An executor or administrator may, in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other powers of expenditure lawfully exercisable by him incur expenditure--


(a) on such acts as may be necessary for the proper care or management of any property belonging to any estate administered by him, and


(b) with the sanction of the High Court, on such religious, charitable and other objects, and on such improvements, as may be reasonable and proper in the case of such property.


309. Commission or agency charges.-

 

An executor or administrator shall not be entitled to receive or retain any commission or agency charges at a higher rate than that for the time being fixed in respect of the Administrator-General by or under the Administrator-General's
Act, 1913 (3 of 1913).

 

310. Purchase by executor or administrator of deceased's property.-

 

If any executor or administrator purchases, either directly or indirectly, any part of the property of the deceased, the sale is voidable at the instance of any other person interested in the property sold.


311. Powers of several executors or administrators exercisable by one.-

 

When there are several executors or administrators, the powers of all may, in the absence of any direction to the contrary, be exercised by any one of them who has proved the will or taken out administration.

 

312. Survival of powers on death of one of several executors or administrators.-

 

Upon the death of one or more of several executors or administrators, in the absence of any direction to the contrary in the will or grant of letters of administration, all the powers of the office become vested in the survivors or survivor.


313. Powers of administrator of effects unadministered.-

 

The administrator of effects unadministered has, with respect to such effects, the same powers as the original executor or administrator.

 


314. Powers of administrator during minority.-

 

An administrator during minority has all the powers of an ordinary administrator.


315. Powers of married executrix or administratrix.-

 

When a grant of probate or letters of administration has been made to a married
woman, she has all the powers of an ordinary executor or administrator.

 

                                               CHAPTER VII


                      Of the Duties of an Executor or Administrator


316. As to deceased's funeral.-

 

It is the duty of an executor to provide funds for the performance of the necessary funeral ceremonies of the deceased in a manner suitable to his condition, if he has left property sufficient for the purpose.

 

317. Inventory and account.-

 

(1) An executor or administrator shall, within six months from the grant of probate or letters of administration, or within such further time as the Court which granted
the probate or letters may appoint, exhibit in that Court an inventory containing a full and true estimate of all the property in possession,and all the credits, and also all the debts owing by any person to which the executor or administrator is entitled in that character; and shall in like manner, within one year from the grant or within such further time as the said Court may appoint, exhibit an account of the estate, showing the assets which have come to his hands and the manner in which they have been applied or disposed of.

 


(2) The High Court may prescribe the form in which an inventory or account under this section is to be exhibited.

 


(3) If an executor or administrator, on being required by the Court to exhibit an inventory or account under this section, intentionally omits to comply with the requisition, he shall be deemed to have committed an offence under section 176 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860.).

 


(4) The exhibition of an intentionally false inventory or account under this section shall be deemed to be an offence under section 193 of that Code.

 


318. Inventory to include property in any part of India in certain cases.-

 

In all cases where a grant has been made of probate or letters of administration intended to have effect throughout 1*[India] 2*, the executor or administrator shall include in the inventory of the effects of the deceased all his moveable and immoveable property situate in 1*[India], and the value of such property situate in each state shall be separately stated in such inventory, and the probate or
letters of administration shall be chargeable with a fee corresponding to the entire amount or value of the property affected thereby wheresoever situate within 1*[India].

 


319. As to property of, and debts owing to, deceased.-

 

The executor or administrator shall collect, with reasonable diligence, the property of the deceased and the debts that were due to him at the time of his death.

 


320. Expenses to be paid before all debts.-

 

Funeral expenses to a reasonable amount, according to the degree and quality of the deceased, and death-bed charges, including fees for medical attendance, and board and lodging for one month previous to his death,  shall be paid before all debts.

 


321. Expenses to be paid next after such expenses.-

 

The expenses of obtaining probate or letters of administration, including the costs
incurred for or in respect of any judicial proceedings that may be necessary for administering the estate, shall be paid next after the funeral expenses and death-bed charges.

 

322. Wages for certain services to be next paid, and then other debts.-

 

Wages due for services rendered to the deceased within three months next preceding his death by any labourer, artizan or domestic servant shall next be paid, and then the other debts of the deceased according to their respective priorities (if any).


323. Save as aforesaid, all debts to be paid equally and rateably.-

 

Save as aforesaid, no creditor shall have a right of priority over another; but the executor or administrator shall pay all such debts as he knows of, including his own, equally and rateably as far as the assets of the deceased will extend.

 


324. Application of moveable property to payment of debts where domicile not in India.-

 

(1) If the domicile of the deceased was not in 1*[India], the application of his moveable property to the payment of his debts is to be regulated by the law of 1*[India].

 


(2) No creditor who has received payment of a part of his debt by virtue of sub-section (1) shall be entitled to share in the proceeds of the immoveable estate of the deceased unless he brings such payment into account for the benefit of the other creditors.

 


(3) This section shall not apply where the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person.

 

325. Debts to be paid before legacies.-

 

Debts of every description must be paid before any legacy.


326. Executor or administrator not bound to pay legacies without indemnity.-

 

If the estate of the deceased is subject to any contingent liabilities, an executor or administrator is not bound to pay any legacy without a sufficient indemnity to meet the liabilities whenever they may become due.

 

327. Abatement of general legacies.-

 

If the assets, after payment of debts, necessary expenses and specific legacies, are not sufficient to pay all the general legacies in full, the latter shall abate or be
diminished in equal proportions, and, in the absence of any direction to the contrary in the will, the executor has no right to pay one legatee in preference to another, or to retain any money on account of a legacy to himself or to any person for whom he is a trustee.

 


328. Non-abatement of specific legacy when assets sufficient to pay debts.-

 

Where there is a specific legacy, and the assets are sufficient for the payment of debts and necessary expenses, the thing specified must be delivered to the legatee without any abatement.

 


329. Right under demonstrative legacy when assets sufficient to pay debts and necessary expenses.-

 

Where there is a demonstrative legacy, and the assets are sufficient for the payment of debts and necessary expenses, the legatee has a preferential claim for payment of his legacy out of the fund from which the legacy is directed to be
paid until such fund is exhausted and if, after the fund is exhausted, part of the legacy still remains unpaid, he is entitled to rank for the remainder against the general assets as for a legacy of the amount of such unpaid remainder.

 


330. Rateable abatement of specific legacies.-

 

If the assets are not sufficient to answer the debts and the specific legacies, an
abatement shall be made from the latter rateably in proportion to their respective amounts.

 

331. Legacies treated as general for purpose of abatement.-

 

For the purpose of abatement, a legacy for life, a sum appropriated by the
will to produce an annuity, and the value of an annuity when no sum has been appropriated to produce it, shall be treated as general
legacies.


                                          CHAPTER VIII

 


                Of Assent to a Legacy by Executor or Administrator

 


332. Assent necessary to complete legatee's title.-

 

The assent of the executor or administrator is necessary to complete a legatee's title to his legacy.

 

333. Effect of executor's assent to specific legacy.-

 

(1) The assent of the executor or administrator to a specific bequest shall be sufficient to divest his interest as executor or administrator therein, and to transfer the subject of the bequest of the legatee, unless the nature or the circumstances of the property require that it shall be transferred in a particular way.

 


(2) This assent may be verbal, and it may be either express or implied from the conduct of the executor or administrator.

 

334. Conditional assent.-

 

The assent of an executor or administrator to a legacy may be conditional, and if the condition is one which he has a right to enforce, and it is not performed, there is no assent.

 

335. Assent of executor to his own legacy.-

 

(1) When the executor or administrator is a legatee, his assent to his own legacy is necessary to complete his title to it, in the same way as it is required when the bequest is to another person, and his assent may, in like manner, be expressed or implied.

 

(2) Assent shall be implied if in his manner of administering the property he does any act which is referable to his character of legatee and is not referable to his character of executor or administrator.

 

336. Effect of executor's assent.-

 

The assent of the executor or administrator to a legacy gives effect to it from the death of the testator.

 

337. Executor when to deliver legacies.-

 

An executor or administrator is not bound to pay or deliver any legacy until the
expiration of one year from the testator's death.

 

                                    CHAPTER IX


               Of the Payment and Apportionment of Annuities


338. Commencement of annuity when no time fixed by will.-

 

Where an annuity is given by a will and no time is fixed for its commencement,
it shall commence from the testator's death, and the first payment shall be made at the expiration of a year next after that event.


339. When annuity, to be paid quarterly or monthly, first falls due.-

 

Where there is a direction that the annuity shall be paid quarterly or monthly, the first payment shall be due at the end of the first quarter or first month, as the case may be, after the testator's death; and shall, if the executor or administrator thinks fit, be paid when due, but the executor or administrator shall not be bound to pay it till the end of the year.

 

340. Dates of successive payments when first payment directed to be made within a given time or on day certain: death of annuitant before date of payment.-

 

(1) Where there is a direction that the first payment of an annuity shall be made within one month or any other division of time from the death of the testator, or on a day certain, the successive payments are to be made on the anniversary of the earliest day on which the will authorises the first payment to be made.


(2) If the annuitant dies in the interval between the times of
payment, an apportioned share of the annuity shall be paid to his
representative.

 

                                             CHAPTER X


                    Of the Investment of Funds to provide for Legacies

 

341. Investment of sum bequeathed, where legacy, not specific, given for life.-

 

Where a legacy, not being a specific legacy, is given for life, the sum bequeathed shall at the end of the year be invested in such securities as the High Court may by any general rule authorise or direct, and the proceeds thereof shall be paid to the legatee as the same shall accrue due.


342. Investment of general legacy, to be paid at future time: disposal of intermediate interest.-

 

(1) Where a general legacy is given to be paid at a future time, the executor or administrator shall invest a sum sufficient to meet it in securities of the kind mentioned in section 341.

 


(2) The intermediate interest shall form part of the residue of
the testator's estate.

 


343. Procedure when no fund charged with, or appropriated to, annuity.-

 

Where an annuity is given and no fund is charged with its payment or appropriated by the will to answer it, a Government annuity of the specified amount shall be purchased, or, if no such annuity can be obtained, then a sum sufficient to produce the annuity shall be invested for that purpose in securities of the kind mentioned in section 341.

 


344. Transfer to residuary legatee of contingent bequest.-

 

Where a bequest is contingent, the executor or administrator is not bound to
invest the amount of the legacy, but may transfer the whole residue of the estate to the residuary legatee, if any, on his giving sufficient security for the payment of the legacy, if it shall become due.

 


345. Investment of residue bequeathed for life, without direction to invest in particular securities.-

 

 

(1) Where the testator has bequeathed the residue of his estate to a person for life without any direction to invest it in any particular securities, so much thereof
as is not at the time of the testator's decease invested in securities of the kind mentioned in section 341 shall be converted into money and invested in such securities.

 


(2) This section shall not apply if the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person.

 

346. Investment of residue bequeathed for life, with direction to invest in specified securities.-

 

When the testator has bequeathed the residue of his estate to a person for life with a direction that it shall be invested in certain specified securities, so much of the estate as is not at the time of his death invested in securities of the specified kind shall be converted into money and invested in such securities.

 


347. Time and manner of conversion and investment.-

 

Such conversion and investment as are contemplated by sections 345 and 346
shall be made at such times and in such manner as the executor or administrator thinks fit; and, until such conversion and investment are completed, the person who would be for the time being entitled to the income of the fund when so invested shall receive interest at the rate of 4 per cent. per annum upon the market-value (to be computed as at the date of the testator's death) of such part of the fund as has not been so invested:

 


Provided that the rate of interest prior to completion of investment shall be six per cent. per annum when the testator was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person.

 


348. Procedure where minor entitled to immediate payment or possession of bequest, and no direction to pay to person on his behalf.-

 

(1) Where, by the terms of a bequest, the legatee is entitled to the immediate payment or possession of the money or thing bequeathed, but is a minor, and there is no direction in the will to pay it to any person on his behalf, the executor or administrator shall pay or deliver the same into the Court of the District Judge, by whom or by whose District Delegate the probate was, or letters of administration with the will annexed were, granted to the account of the legatee, unless the legatee is a ward of the Court of Wards.

 


(2) If the legatee is a ward of the Court of Wards, the legacy shall be paid to the Court of Wards to his account.

 


(3) Such payment into the Court of the District Judge, or to the Court of Wards, as the case may be, shall be a sufficient discharge for the money so paid.

 


(4) Money when paid in under this section shall be invested in the purchase of Government securities, which, with the interest thereon, shall be transferred or paid to the person entitled thereto, or otherwise applied for his benefit, as the Judge or the Court of Wards, as the case may be, may direct.

 

349. Legatee's title to produce of specific legacy.-

 

The legatee of a specific legacy is entitled to the clear produce thereof, if any,
from the testator's death.

 

Exception.--A specific bequest, contingent in its terms, does not comprise the produce of the legacy between the death of the testator and the vesting of the legacy. The clear produce of it forms part of the residue of the testator's estate.

 

                                CHAPTER XI

 
          Of the Produce and Interest of Legacies


350. Residuary legatee's title to produce of residuary fund.-

 

The legatee under a general residuary fund from the testator's death.


Exception.--A general residuary bequest contingent in its terms does not comprise the income which may accrue upon the fund bequeathed between the death of the testator and the vesting of the legacy. Such income goes as undisposed of.

 

351. Interest when no time fixed for payment of general legacy.-

 


Where no time has been fixed for the payment of a general legacy, interest beings to run from expiration of one year from the testator's death.

 


Exception.--(1) Where the legacy is bequeathed in satisfaction of a debt, interest runs from the death of the testator.

 


(2) Where the testator was a parent or a more remote ancestor of the legatee, or has put himself in the place of a parent of the legatee, the legacy shall bear interest from the death of the testator.

 


(3) Where a sum is bequeathed to a minor with a direction to pay for his maintenance out of it, interest is payable from the death of the testator.

 

352. Interest when time fixed.-

 

Where a time has been fixed for the payment of a general legacy, interest begins to run from the time so fixed. The interest up to such time forms part of the residue of the testator's estate.

 


Exception.--Where the testator was a parent or a more remote ancestor of the legatee, or has put himself in the place of a parent of the legatee and the legatee is a minor, the legacy shall bear interest from the death of the testator, unless a specific sum is given by the will for maintenance, or unless the will contains a
direction to the contrary.

 


353. Rate of interest.-

 

The rate of interest shall be four per cent. per annum in all cases except when the testator was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, in which case it shall be six per cent. per annum.

 


354. No interest on arrears of annuity within first year after testator's death.-

 

No interest is payable on the arrears of an annuity within the first year from the death of the testator, although a period earlier than the expiration of that year may have been fixed by the will for making the first payment of the annuity.

 


355. Interest on sum to be invested to produce annuity.-

 

Where a sum of money is directed to be invested to produce an annuity,
interest is payable on it from the death of the testator.

 

                                   CHAPTER XII


                       Of the Refunding of Legacies

 


356. Refund of legacy paid under Court's orders.-

 

When an executor or administrator has paid a legacy under the order of a Court, he is entitled to call upon the legatee to refund in the event of the assets
proving insufficient to pay all the legacies.

 


357. No refund if paid voluntarily.-

 

When an executor or administrator has voluntarily paid a legacy, he cannot call upon a legatee to refund in the event of the assets proving insufficient to
pay all the legacies.

 


358. Refund when legacy has become due on performance of condition within further time allowed under section 137.-

 

When the time prescribed by the will for the performance of a condition has elapsed, without the condition having been performed, and the executor or
administrator has thereupon, without fraud, distributed the assets; in such case, if further time has been allowed under section 137 for the performance of the condition, and the condition has been performed accordingly, the legacy cannot be claimed from the executor or administrator, but those to whom he has paid it are liable to refund the amount.

 

359. When each legatee compellable to refund in proportion.-

 

When the executor or administrator has paid away the assets in legacies,
and he is afterwards obliged to discharge a debt of which he had no previous notice, he is entitled to call upon each legatee to refund in proportion.


360. Distribution of assets.-

 

Where an executor or administrator has given such notices as the High Court may, by any general rule, prescribe or, if no such rule has been made, as the High Court would give in an administration-suit, for creditors and others to send in to him their claims against the estate of the deceased, he shall, at the expiration of the time therein named for sending in claims, be at liberty to distribute the assets, or any part thereof, in discharge of such lawful claims as he knows of, and shall not be liable for the assets so distributed to any person of whose claim he shall not have had notice at the time of such distribution:

 


Provided that nothing herein contained shall prejudice the right of any creditor or claimant to follow the assets, or any part thereof, in the hands of the persons who may have received the same respectively.

 


361. Creditor may call upon legatee to refund.-

 

A creditor who has not received payment of his debt may call upon a legatee who has received payment of his legacy to refund, whether the assets of the testator's estate were or were not sufficient at the time of his death to pay both debts and legacies; and whether the payment of the legacy by the executor or administrator was voluntary or not.

 


362. When legatee, not satisfied or compelled to refund under section 361, cannot oblige one paid in full to refund.-

 

If the assets were sufficient to satisfy all the legacies at the time of the testator's death, a legatee who has not received payment of his legacy, or who has been compelled to refund under section 361, cannot oblige one who has received payment in full to refund, whether the legacy were paid to him with or without suit, although the assets have subsequently become deficient by the wasting of the executor.


363. When unsatisfied legatee must first proceed against executor, if solvent.-

 

If the assets were not sufficient to satisfy all the legacies at the time of the testator's death, a legatee who has not received payment of his legacy must, before he can call on a satisfied legatee to refund, first proceed against the executor or administrator if he is solvent; but if the executor or administrator
is insolvent or not liable to pay, the unsatisfied legatee can oblige each satisfied legatee to refund in proportion.


364. Limit to refunding of one legatee to another.-

 

The refunding of one legatee to another shall not exceed the sum by which the
satisfied legacy ought to have been reduced if the estate had been properly administered.

 

365. Refunding to be without interest.-The refunding shall in all cases be without interest.

 


366. Residue after usual payments to be paid to residuary legatee.-

 

The surplus or residue of the deceased's property, after payment of debts and legacies, shall be paid to the residuary legatee when any has been appointed by the will.

 


367. Transfer of assets from India to executor or administrator in country of domicile for distribution.-

 

Where a person not having his domicile in 1*[India] has died leaving assets both in 1*[India] and in the country in which he had his domicile at the time of his death, and there has been a grant of probate or letters of administration in
1*[India] with respect to the assets there and a grant of administration in the country of domicile with respect to the assets in that country, the executor or
administrator, as the case may be, in 1*[India], after having given such notices as are mentioned in section 360, and after having discharged, at the expiration of the time therein named, such lawful claims as he knows of, may, instead of himself distributing any surplus or residue of the deceased's property to persons residing out of 1*[India] who are entitled thereto, transfer, with the consent of
the executor or administrator, as the case may be, in the country of domicile, the surplus or residue to him for distribution to those persons.

 

                                   CHAPTER XIII


         Of the Liability of an Executor or Administrator for Devastation


368. Liability of executor or administrator for devastation.-

 

When an executor or administrator misapplies the estate of the deceased, or
subjects it to loss or damage, he is liable to make good the loss or damage so occasioned.

 

369. Liability of executor or administrator for neglect to get any part of property.-

 

When an executor or administrator occasions a loss to the estate by neglecting to get in any part of the property of the deceased, he is liable to make good the amount.

 

                                              PART X


                                 SUCCESSION CERTIFICATES

 


370. Restriction on grant of certificates under this Part.-

 

(1) A succession certificate (hereinafter in this Part referred to as a
certificate) shall not be granted under this Part with respect to any debt or security to which a right is required by section 212 or section 213 to be established by letters of administration or probate:

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to prevent the grant of a certificate to any person claiming to be entitled to the effects of a deceased Indian Christian, or to any part thereof, with respect to any debt or security, by reason that a right thereto can be established by letters of administration under this Act.


(2) For the purposes of this Part, "security" means--

 


(a) any promissory note, debenture, stock or other security of the Central Government or of a State Government;

 


(b) any bond, debenture, or annuity charged by Act of Parliament 1*[of the United Kingdom] on the revenues of India;

 


(c) any stock or debenture of, or share in, a company or other incorporated institution;

 


(d) any debenture or other security for money issued by, or on behalf of, a local authority;

 


(e) any other security which the 2*[State Government] may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a security for the purposes of this Part.

 

371. Court having jurisdiction to grant certificate.-

 

 

The District Judge within whose jurisdiction the deceased ordinarily resided at the
time of his death, or, if at that time had no fixed place of residence, the District Judge, within whose jurisdiction any part of the property of the deceased may be found, may grant a certificate under this Part.

 


372. Application for certificate.-

 

(1) Application for such a certificate shall be made to the District Judge by a petition signed and verified by or on behalf of the applicant in the manner prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908.) for the signing and
verification of a plaint by or on behalf of a plaintiff, and setting forth the following particulars, namely:--


(a) the time of the death of the deceased;

 


(b) the ordinary residence of the deceased at the time of his death and, if such residence was not within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Judge to whom the application is made, then the property of the deceased within those limits;

 

(c) the family or other near relatives of the deceased and their respective residences;

 


(d) the right in which the petitioner claims;

 


(e) the absence of any impediment under section 370 or under any other provision of this Act or any other enactment, to the grant of the certificate or to the validity
thereof if it were granted; and

 


(f) the debts and securities in respect of which the certificate is applied for.

 


(2) If the petition contains any averment which the person verifying it knows or believes to be false, or does not believe to be true, that person shall be deemed to have committed an offence under section 198 of the Indian Penal Code. (45 of 1860.) 1*[(3) Application for such a certificate may be made in respect
of any debt or debts due to the deceased creditor or in respect of portions thereof.]

 

373. Procedure on application.-

 

(1) If the District Judge is satisfied that there is ground for entertaining the application, he shall fix a day for the hearing thereof and cause notice of the
application and of the day fixed for the hearing--

 


(a) to be served on any person to whom, in the opinion of the Judge, special notice of the application should be given, and

 


(b) to be posted on some conspicuous part of the court-house and published in such other manner, if any, as the Judge, subject to any rules made by the High Court in this behalf, thinks fit, and upon the day fixed, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable, shall proceed to decide in a summary manner the right to the
certificate.

 


(2) When the Judge decides the right thereto to belong to the applicant, the Judge shall make an order for the grant of the certificate to him.

 


(3) If the Judge cannot decide the right to the certificate without determining questions of law or fact which seem to be too intricate and difficult for determination in a summary proceeding, he may nevertheless grant a certificate to the applicant if he appears to be the person having prima facie the best title thereto.

 

(4) When there are more applicants than one for a certificate, and it appears to the Judge that more than one of such applicants are interested in the estate of the deceased, the Judge may, in deciding to whom the certificate is to be granted, have regard to the extent of interest and the fitness in other respects of the applicants.

 

374. Contents of certificate.-When the District Judge grants a certificate, he shall therein specify the debts and securities set forth in the application for the certificate, and may thereby empower the person to whom the certificate is granted--


(a) to receive interest or dividends on, or


(b) to negotiate or transfer, or


(c) both to receive interest or dividends on, and to negotiate or transfer,
the securities or any of them.


375. Requisition of security from grantee of certificate.-

 

(1) The District Judge shall in any case in which he proposes to proceed under
sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 373, and may, in any other case, require, as a condition precedent to the granting of a certificate, that the person to whom he proposes to make the grant shall give to the Judge a bond with one or more surety or sureties, or other sufficient security, for rendering an account of debts and securities received by him and for indemnity of persons who may be
entitled to the whole or any part of those debts and securities.

 


(2) The Judge may, on application made by petition and on cause shown to his satisfaction, and upon such terms as to security, or providing that the money received be paid into Court, or otherwise, as he thinks fit, assign the bond or other security to some proper person, and that person shall thereupon be entitled to sue thereon in his own name as if it had been originally given to him instead of to
the Judge of the Court, and to recover, as trustee for all persons interested, such amount as may be recoverable thereunder.

 

376. Extension of certificate.-

 

(1) A District Judge may, on the application of the holder of a certificate under this Part, extend the certificate to any debt or security not originally specified therein, and every such extension shall have the same effect as if the debt or security to which the certificate is extended had been originally specified therein.

 


(2) Upon the extension of a certificate, powers with respect to the receiving of interest or dividends on, or the negotiation or transfer of, any security to which the certificate has been extended may be conferred, and a bond or further bond or other security for the purposes mentioned in section 375 may be required, in the same manner as upon the original grant of a certificate.

 


377. Forms of certificate and extended certificate.-

 

Certificates shall be granted and extensions of certificates shall be made, as
nearly as circumstances admit, in the forms set forth in Schedule VIII.


378. Amendment of certificate in respect of powers as to securities.-

 

Where a District Judge has not conferred on the holder of a certificate any power with respect to a security specified in the certificate, or has only empowered him to receive interest or dividends on, or to negotiate or transfer, the security, the Judge
may, on application made by petition and on cause shown to his satisfaction, amend the certificate by conferring any of the powers mentioned in section 374 or by substituting any one for any other of those powers.

 

379. Mode of collecting Court-fees on certificates.-

 

(1) Every application for a certificate or for the extension of a certificate shall be accompanied by a deposit of a sum equal to the fee payable under the Court-fees Act, 1870, (7 of 1870.) in respect of the certificate or extension applied for.

 


(2) If the application is allowed, the sum deposited by the applicant shall be expended, under the direction of the Judge, in the purchase of the stamp to be used for denoting the fee payable as aforesaid.

 


(3) Any sum received under sub-section (1) and not expended under sub-section (2) shall be refunded to the person who deposited it.

 


380. Local extent of certificate.-A certificate under this Part shall have effect throughout 1*[India] 2*.

 

1*[This section shall apply in 2*[India] 3* after the separation of Burma and Aden from India to certificates granted in Burma and Aden before the date of the separation, or after that date in proceedings which were pending at that date.]

 


4*[It shall also apply in 2*[India] 5* 6* after the separation of Pakistan from India to certificates granted before the date of the separation, or after that date in proceedings pending at that date in any of the territories which on that date constituted Pakistan.]

 

381. Effect of certificate.-

 

Subject to the provisions of this Part, the certificate of the District Judge shall, with respect to the debts and securities specified therein, be conclusive as against the
persons owing such debts or liable on such securities, and shall, notwithstanding any contravention of section 370, or other defect, afford full indemnity to all such persons as regards all payments made, or dealings had, in good faith in respect of such debts or securities to or with the person to whom the certificate was granted. Effect of certificate granted or extended by Indian representative in
foreign State and in certain other cases.


7*[382. Effect of certificate granted or extended by Indian representative in foreign State and in certain other cases.-

Where a certificate in the form, as nearly as circumstances admit, of Schedule
VIII--


(a) has been granted to a resident within a foreign State by an Indian representative accredited to that State, or

 


(b) has been granted before the commencement of the Part B States (Laws) Act, 1951, (3 of 1951.) to a resident within any Part B State by a district judge of that
State or has been extended by him in such form, or

 


(c) has been granted after the commencement of the Part B States (Laws) Act, 1951, to a resident within the State of Jammu and Kashmir by the district judge of that State or has been extended by him in such form, the certificate shall, when stamped in accordance with the provisions of the Court-fees Act, 1870, (7 of 1870.) with respect to certificates under this Part, have the same effect in India as a certificate granted or extended under this Part.]

 

383. Revocation of certificate.-

 

A certificate granted under this Part may be revoked for any of the following causes, namely:--

 


(a) that the proceedings to obtain the certificate were defective in substance;

 


(b) that the certificate was obtained fraudulently by the making of a false suggestion, or by the concealment from the Court of something material to the case;

 


(c) that the certificate was obtained by means of an untrue allegation of a fact essential in point of law to justify the grant thereof, though such allegation was
made in ignorance or inadvertently;

 


(d) that the certificate has become useless and inoperative through circumstances;

 


(e) that a decree or order made by a competent Court in a suit or other proceeding with respect to effects comprising debts or securities specified in the
certificate renders it proper that the certificate should be revoked.


384. Appeal.-

 

(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Part, an appeal shall lie to the High Court from an order of a District Judge granting, refusing or revoking a certificate under this Part, and the High Court may, if it thinks fit, by its order on the appeal, declare the person to whom the certificate should be granted and direct the
District Judge, on application being made therefor, to grant it accordingly, in supersession of the certificate, if any, already granted.

 


(2) An appeal under sub-section (1) must be preferred within the time allowed for an appeal under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. (5 of 1908).

 


(3) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) and to the provisions as to reference to and revision by the High Court and as to review of judgment of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908.) as applied by section 141 of that Code, an order of a District Judge under this Part shall be final.

 


385. Effect on certificate of previous certificate, probate or letters of administration.-

 

Save as provided by this Act, a certificate granted thereunder in respect of any of the effects of a deceased person shall be invalid if there has been a previous grant of such a certificate or of probate or letters of administration in respect of
the estate of the deceased person and if such previous grant is in force.


386. Validation of certain payments made in good faith to holder of invalid certificate.-

 

Where a certificate under this Part has been superseded or is invalid by reason of the certificate having been revoked under section 383, or by reason of the grant of a certificate to a person named in an appellate order under section 384, or by reason of a certificate having been previously granted, or for any other cause,
all payments made or dealings had, as regards debts and securities specified in the superseded or invalid certificate, to or with the holder of that certificate in ignorance of its supersession or invalidity, shall be held good against claims under any other certificate.

 

387. Effect of decisions under this Act, and liability of holder of certificate thereunder.-

 

No decision under this Part upon any question of right between any parties shall be held to bar the trial of the same question in any suit or in any other proceeding between the same parties, and nothing in this Part shall be construed to affect the liability of any person who may receive the whole or any part of any debt or security, or any interest or dividend on any security, to account therefor to the person lawfully entitled thereto.


388. Investiture of inferior Courts with jurisdiction of District Court for purposes of this Act.-

 

(1) The State Government may by notification in the Official Gazette, invest any Court inferior in grade to a District Judge with power to exercise the functions of a
District Judge under this Part.

 


(2) Any inferior Court so invested shall, within the local limits of its jurisdiction, have concurrent jurisdiction with the District Judge in the exercise of all the powers conferred by this Part upon the District Judge, and the provisions of this Part relating to the District Judge shall apply to such an inferior Court as if it were a
District Judge:

 


Provided that an appeal from any such order of an inferior Court as is mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 384 shall lie to the District Judge, and not to the High Court, and that the District Judge may, if he thinks fit, by his order on the appeal, make any such declaration and direction as that sub-section authorises the High
Court to make by its order on an appeal from an order of a District Judge.

 


(3) An order of a District Judge on an appeal from an order of an inferior Court under the last foregoing sub-section shall, subject to the provisions as to reference to and revision by the High Court and as to review of judgment of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908.) as applied by section 141 of that Code, be final.

 


(4) The District Judge may withdraw any proceedings under this Part from an inferior Court, and may either himself dispose of them or transfer them to another such Court established within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the District Judge and having authority to dispose of the proceedings.

 


(5) A notification under sub-section (1) may specify any inferior Court specially or any class of such Courts in any local area.


(6) Any Civil Court which for any of the purposes of any enactment is subordinate to, or subject to the control of, a District Judge shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be a Court inferior in grade to a District Judge.

 

389. Surrender of superseded and invalid certificates.-

 

(1) When a certificate under this Part has been superseded or is invalid from any
of the causes mentioned in section 386, the holder thereof shall, on the requisition of the Court which granted it, deliver it up to that Court.


(2) If he wilfully and without reasonable cause omits so to deliver it up, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with both.

 


390. Provisions with respect to certificates under Bombay Regulation 8 of 1827.-Notwithstanding anything in Bombay Regulation No. VIII of 1827 the provisions of section 370, sub-section (2), section 372, sub-section (1), clause (f), and sections 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 383, 384, 387, 388 and 389 with respect to certificates under this Part and applications therefor, and of section 317 with respect to the exhibition of inventories and accounts by executors and administrators, shall, so far as they can be made applicable, apply, respectively, to certificates granted under that Regulation and applications made for certificates thereunder, after the 1st day of May, 1889, and to the exhibition of inventories and accounts by the holders of such certificates so granted.

 

                                         PART XI


                                     MISCELLANEOUS


391. Saving.-Nothing in Part VIII, Part IX or Part X shall--


(i) validate any testamentary disposition which would otherwise have been invalid;


(ii) invalidate any such disposition which would otherwise have been valid;


(iii) deprive any person of any right of maintenance to which he would otherwise have been entitled; or


(iv) affect the Administrator General's Act, 1913. (3 of 1913.)


392. Repeals.-[Repeals.] Rep. by the Repealing Act, 1927 (12 of 1927), s. 2 and Sch.