THE TRADE MARKS ACT, 1999

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to trade marks, to provide for registration and better protection of trade marks for goods and services and for the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fiftieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

 

                                                       CHAPTER I: PRELIMINARY

 

1. Short title, extent and commencement

 

    (1) This Act may be called the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

 

    (2) It extends to the whole of India.

 

    (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint:

 

    PROVIDED that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.

 

2. Definitions and interpretation

 

    (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, -

 

        (a) "Appellate Board" means the Appellate Board established under section 83;

 

        (b) "assignment" means an assignment in writing by act of the parties concerned;

 

        (c) "associated trade marks" means a trade marks deemed to be, or requited to be, registered as associated trade marks under this Act;

 

        (d) "Bench" means a Bench of the Appellate Board;

 

        (e) "certification trade mark" means a mark capable of distinguishing the goods or services in connection with which it is used in the course of trade which are certified by the proprietor of the mark in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture of goods or performance of services, quality, accuracy or other characteristics from goods or services not so certified and registrable as such under Chapter IX in respect of those goods or services in the name, as proprietor of the certification trade mark, of that person;

 

        (f) "Chairman" means the Chairman of the Appellate Board;

 

        (g) "collective mark" means a trade mark distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons (not being. a partnership within the meaning of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932) which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others;

 

        (h) "deceptively similar"-A mark shall be deemed to be deceptively similar to another mark if it so nearly resembles that other mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion;

 

        (i) "false trade description" means-

 

            (I) a trade description which is untrue or misleading in a material respect as regards the goods or services to which it is applied". or

 

            (II) any alteration of trade description as regards the goods or services to which it is applied, whether by way of addition, effacement or otherwise, where that alteration makes the description untrue or misleading in a material respect; or

 

            (III) any trade description which denotes or implies that there are contained, as regards the goods to which it is applied, more yards or metres than there are contained therein standard yards or standard metres; or

 

            (IV) any marks or arrangement or combination thereof when applied -

 

                (a) to goods in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the goods are the manufacture or merchandise of some person other than the person whose merchandise or manufacture they really are;

 

                (b) in relation to services in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the services are provided or rendered by some person other than the person whose services they really are; or

 

            (V) any false name or initials of a person applied to goods or services in such manner as if such name or initials were a trade description in any case where the name or initials -

 

                (a) is or are not a trade mark or part of a trade mark; and

 

                (b) is or are identical with or deceptively similar to the name or initials of a person carrying on business in connection with goods or services of the same description or both and who has not authorised the use of such name or initials; and

 

                (c) is or are either the name or initials of a fictitious person or some person not bona fide carrying on business in connection with such goods or services,

 

and the fact that a trade description is a trade mark or part of a trade mark shall not prevent such trade description being a false trade description within the meaning of this Act;

 

        (j) "goods" means anything which is the subject of trade or manufacture;

 

        (k) "Judicial Member" means a Member of the Appellate Board appointed as such under this Act, and includes the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman;

 

        (l) "limitations" (with its grammatical variations) means any limitation of the exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given by the registration of a person as proprietor thereof, including limitations of that right as to mode or area of use within India or outside India;

 

        (m) "mark" includes a device, brand, heading, label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter, numeral, shape of goods, packaging or combination of colours or any combination thereof;

 

        (n) "Member" means a Judicial Member or a Technical Member of the Appellate Board and includes the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman;

 

        (o) "name" includes any abbreviation of a name;

 

        (p) "notify" means to notify in the Trade Mark Journal published by the Registrar;

 

        (q) "package" includes any case, box, container, covering, folder, receptacle, vessel, casket, bottle, wrapper, label, band, ticket, reel, frame, capsule, cap, lid, stopper and cork;

 

        (r) "permitted use", in relation to a registered trade mark, means the use of trade mark -

 

            (i) by a registered user of the trade mark in relation to goods or services-

 

                (a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and

 

                (b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and

 

                (c) for which he is registered as registered user; and

 

                (d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which the registration of registered user is subject; or

 

            (ii) by a person other than the registered proprietor and registered user in relation to goods or services

-

                (a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and

 

                (b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and

 

                (c) by consent of such registered proprietor in a written agreement; and

 

                (d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which such user is subject and to which the registration of the trade mark is subject;

 

        (s) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

 

        (t) "register" means the Register of Trade Marks referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6;

 

        (u) "registered" (with its grammatical variations) means registered under this Act;

 

        (v) "registered proprietor", in relation to a trade mark, means the person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of the trade mark;

 

        (w) "registered trade mark" means a trade mark which is actually on the register and remaining in force;

 

        (x) "registered user" means a person who is for the time being registered as such under section 49;

 

        (y) "Registrar" means the Registrar of Trade Marks referred to in section 3;

 

        (z) "service" means service of any description which is made available to potential users and includes the provision of services in connection with business of any industrial or commercial matters such as banking, communication, education, financing, insurance, chit funds, real estate, transport, storage, material treatment, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding, lodging, entertainment, amusement, construction, repair, conveying of news or information and advertising;

 

        (za) "trade description" means any description, statement or other indication, direct or indirect,-

 

            (i) as to the number, quantity, measure, guage or weight of any goods ; or

 

            (ii) as to the standard of quality of any goods or services according to a classification commonly used or recognised in the trade; or

 

            (iii) as to fitness for the purpose, strength, performance or behaviour of any goods, being "drug" as defined in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, or "food" as defined in the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954; or

 

            (iv) as to the place or country in which or the time at which any goods or services were made, produced or provided, as the case may be; or

 

            (v) as to the name and address or other indication of the identity of the manufacturer or of the person providing the services or of the person for whom the goods are manufactured or services are provided; or

 

            (vi) as to the mode of manufacture or producing any goods or providing services; or

 

            (vii) as to the material of which any goods are composed; or

 

            (viii) as to any goods being the subject of an existing patent, privilege or copyright, and includes -

 

                (a) any description as to the use of any mark which according to the custom of the trade is commonly taken to be an indication of any of the above matters;

 

                (b) the description as to any imported goods contained in any bill of entry or shipping bill;

 

                (c) any other description which is likely to be misunderstood or mistaken for all or any of the said matters;

 

        (zb) "trade mark" means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others and may include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colours; and

 

            (i) in relation to Chapter XII (other than section 107), a registered trade mark or a mark used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right as proprietor to use the mark; and

 

            (ii) in relation to other provisions of this Act, a mark used or proposed to be used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right, either as proprietor or by way of permitted user, to use the mark whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person, and includes a certification trade mark or collective mark;

 

        (zc) "transmission" means transmission by operation of law, devolution on the personal representative of a deceased person and any other mode of transfer, not being assignment;

 

        (zd) "Technical Member" means a Member who is not a Judicial Member;

 

        (ze) "tribunal" means the Registrar or, as the case may be, the Appellate Board, before which the proceeding concerned is pending;

 

        (zf) "Vice-Chairman" means a Vice-Chairman of the Appellate Board;

 

        (zg) "well-known trade mark", in relation to any goods or services, means a mark which has become so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services that the use of such mark in relation to other goods or services would be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in the course of trade or rendering of services between those goods or services and a person using the mark in relation to the first-mentioned goods or services.

 

    (2) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference-

 

        (a) to "trade mark" shall include reference to "collective mark" or "certification trade mark";

 

        (b) to the use of a mark shall be construed as a reference to the use of printed or other visual representation of the mark;

 

        (c) to the use of a mark, -

 

            (i) in relation to goods, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark upon, or in any physical or in any other relation whatsoever, to such goods;

 

            (ii) in relation to services, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark as or as part of any statement about the availability, provision or performance of such services;

 

        (d) to the Registrar shall be construed as including a reference to any officer when discharging the functions of the Registrar in pursuance of sub-section (2) of section 3;

 

        (e) to the Trade Marks Registry shall be construed as including a reference to any office of the Trade Marks Registry.

 

    (3) For the purposes of this Act, goods and services are associated with each other if it is likely that those goods might be sold or otherwise traded in and those services might be provided by the same business and so with descriptions of goods and descriptions of services.

 

    (4) For the purposes of this Act, "existing registered trade mark" means a trade mark registered under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 immediately before the commencement of this Act.

 

 

                    CHAPTER II: THE REGISTER AND CONDITIONS FOR REGISTRATION

 

 

3. Appointment of Registrar and other officers

 

    (1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a person to be known as the Controller-General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, who shall be the Registrar of Trade Marks for the purposes of this Act.

 

    (2) The Central Government may appoint such other officers with such designations as it thinks fit for the purpose of discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar, such functions of the Registrar under this Act as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge.

 

4. Power of Registrar to withdraw or transfer cases, etc.

 

Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 3, the Registrar may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded therein, withdraw any matter pending before an officer appointed under the said sub-section (2) and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was so withdrawn or transfer the same to another officer so appointed who may, subject to special directions in the order of transfer, proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

 

5. Trade Marks Registry and offices thereof

 

    (1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be a trade marks registry and the Trade Marks Registry established under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall be the Trade Marks Registry under this Act.

 

    (2) The head office of the Trade Marks Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government may specify, and for the purpose of facilitating the registration of trade marks, there may be established at such places as the Central Government may think fit branch offices of the Trade Marks Registry.

 

    (3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, define the territorial limits within which an office of the Trade Marks Registry may exercise its functions.

 

    (4) There shall be a seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

 

6. The Register of Trade Marks

 

    (1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Register of Trade Marks shall be kept at the head office of the Trade Marks Registry, wherein shall be entered all registered trade marks with the names, addresses and description of the proprietors, notifications of assignment and transmissions, the names, addresses and descriptions of registered users, conditions, limitations and such other matter relating to registered trade marks as may be prescribed.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Registrar to keep the records wholly or partly in computer floppies diskettes or in any other electronic form subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed.

 

    (3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer under sub-section (2) any reference in this Act to entry in the register shall be construed as the reference to any entry as maintained on computer or in any other electronic form.

 

    (4) No notice of any trust, express or implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register and no such notice shall be receivable by the. Registrar.

 

    (5) The register shall be kept under the control and management of the Registrar.

 

    (6) There shall be kept at each branch office of the Trade Marks Registry a copy of the register and such of the other documents mentioned in section 148 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct.

 

    (7) The Register of Trade Marks, both Part A and Part B, existing at the commencements of this Act, shall be incorporated in and form part of the register under this Act.

 

7. Classification of goods and services

 

    (1) The Registrar shall classify goods and services, as far as may be, in accordance with the International classification of goods and services for the purposes of registration of trade marks.

 

    (2) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services falls shall be determined by the Registrar whose decision shall be final.

 

8. Publication of alphabetical index

 

    (1) The Registrar may publish in the prescribed manner an alphabetical index of classification of goods and services referred to in section 7.

 

    (2) Where any goods or services are not specified in the alphabetical index of goods and services published under sub-section (1), the classification of goods or services shall be determined by the Registrar in accordance with sub-section (2) of section 7.

 

9. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration

 

    (1) The trade marks -

 

        (a) which are devoid of any distinctive character, that is to say, not capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of another person;

 

        (b) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of the goods or rendering of the service or other characteristics of the goods or service;

 

        (c) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade, shall not be registered:

 

    PROVIDED that a trade mark shall not be refused registration if before the date of application for registration it has acquired a distinctive character as a result of the use made of it or is a well-known trade mark.

 

    (2) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if -

 

        (a) it is of such nature as to deceive the public or cause confusion;

 

        (b) it contains or comprises of any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India;

 

        (c) it comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter;

 

        (d) its use is prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.

 

    (3) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if it consists exclusively of -

 

        (a) the shape of goods which results from the nature of the goods themselves; or

 

        (b) the shape of goods which is necessary to obtain a technical result; or

 

        (c) the shape which gives substantial value to the goods.

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, the nature of goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is used or proposed to be used shall not be a ground for refusal of registration.

 

10. Limitation as to colour

 

    (1) A trade mark may be limited wholly or in part to any combination of colours and any such limitation shall be taken into consideration by the tribunal having to decide on the distinctive character of the trade mark.

 

    (2) So far as a trade mark is registered without limitation of colour, it shall be deemed to be registered for all colours.

 

11. Relative grounds for refusal of registration

 

    (1) Save as provided in section l2, a trade mark shall not be registered if, because of -

 

        (a) its identity with an earlier trade mark and similarity of goods or services covered by the trade mark; or

 

        (b) its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by the trade mark, there exists a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public, which includes the likelihood of association with the earlier trade mark.

 

    (2) A trade mark which -

 

        (a) is identical with or similar to an earlier trade mark; and

 

        (b) is to be registered for goods or services which are not similar to those for which the earlier trade mark is registered in the name of a different proprietor, shall not be registered if or to the extent the earlier trade mark is a well-known trade mark in India and the use of the later mark without due course would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the earlier trade mark.

 

    (3) A trade mark shall not be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be prevented -

 

        (a) by virtue of any law in particular the law of passing off protecting an unregistered trade mark used in the course of trade; or

 

        (b) by virtue of law of copyright.

 

    (4) Nothing in this section shall prevent the registration of a trade mark where the proprietor of the earlier trade mark or other earlier right consents to the registration, and in such case the Registrar may register the mark under special circumstances under section 12.

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, earlier trade mark means -

 

    (a) a registered trade mark or convention application referred to in section 154 which has a date of application earlier than that of the trade mark in question, taking account, where appropriate, of the priorities claimed in respect of the trade marks;

 

    (b) a trade mark which, on the date of the application for registration of the trade mark in question, or where appropriate, of the priority claimed in respect of the application, was entitled to protection as a well-known trade mark.

 

    (5) A trade mark shall not be refused registration on the grounds specified in sub-sections (2) and (3), unless objection on any one or more of those grounds is raised in opposition proceedings by the proprietor of the earlier trade mark.

 

    (6) The Registrar shall, while determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, take into account any fact which he considers relevant for determining a trade mark as a well-known trade mark including -

 

        (i) the knowledge or recognition of that trade mark in the relevant section of the public including knowledge in India obtained as a result of promotion of the trade mark;

 

        (ii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any use of that trade mark;

 

        (iii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any promotion of the trade mark, including advertising or publicity and presentation, at fairs or exhibition of the goods or services to which the trade mark applies;

 

        (iv) the duration and geographical area of any registration of or any publication for registration of that trade mark under this Act to the extent they reflect the use or recognition of the trade mark;

 

        (v) the record of successful enforcement of the rights in that trade mark, in particular, the extent to which the trade mark has been recognised as a well-known trade mark by any court or Registrar under that record.

 

    (7) The Registrar shall, while determining as to whether a trade mark is known or recognised in a relevant section of the public for the purposes of sub-section (6), take into account -

 

        (i) the number of actual or potential consumers of the goods or services;

 

        (ii) the number of persons involved in the channels of distribution of the goods or services;

 

        (iii) the business circles dealing with the goods or services, to which that trade mark applies.

 

    (8) Where a trade mark has been determined to be well-known in at least one relevant section of the public in India by any court or Registrar, the Registrar shall consider that trade mark as a well-known trade mark for registration under this Act.

 

    (9) "The Registrar shall not require as a condition, for determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, any of the following, namely: -

 

        (i) that the trade mark has been used in India;

 

        (ii) that the trade mark has been registered;

 

        (iii) that the application for registration of the trade mark has been filed in India;

 

        (iv) that the trade mark -

 

            (a) is well known in; or

 

            (b) has been registered in; or

 

            (c) in respect of which an application for registration has been filed in, any jurisdiction other than India; or

 

        (v) that the trade mark is well-known to the public at large in India.

 

    (10) While considering an application for registration of a trade mark and opposition filed in respect thereof, the Registrar shall -

 

        (i) protect a well-known trade mark against the identical or similar trade marks;

 

        (ii) take into consideration the bad faith involved either of the applicant or the opponent affecting the right relating to the trade mark.

 

    (11) Where a trade mark has been registered in good faith disclosing the material informations to the Registrar or where right to a trade mark has been acquired through use in goods faith before the commencement of this Act, then, nothing in this Act shall prejudice the validity of the registration of that trade mark or right to use that trade mark on the ground that such trade mark is identical with or similar to a well known trade mark.

 

12. Registration in the case of honest concurrent use, etc.

 

In the case of honest concurrent use or of other special circumstances which in the opinion of the Registrar, make it proper so to do, he may permit the registration by more than one proprietor of the trade marks which are identical or similar (whether any such trade mark is already registered or not) in respect of the same or similar goods or services, subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as the Registrar may think fit to impose.

 

13. Prohibition of registration of names of chemical elements or international non-proprietary names

 

No word -

 

    (a) which is the commonly used and accepted name of any single chemical element or any single chemical compound (as distinguished from a mixture) in respect of a chemical substance or preparation, or

 

    (b) which is declared by the World Health Organisation and notified in the prescribed manner by the Registrar from time to time, as an international non-proprietary name or which is deceptively similar to such name,

 

shall be registered as a trade mark and any such registration shall be deemed for the purpose of section 57 to be an entry made in the register without sufficient cause or an entry wrongly remaining on the register, as the circumstances may require.

 

14. Use of names and representations of living persons or persons recently dead

 

Where an application is made for the registration of a trade mark which falsely suggests a connection with any living person, or a person whose death took place within twenty years prior to the date of application for registration of the trade mark, the Registrar may, before he proceeds with the application, require the applicant to furnish him with the consent in writing of such living person or, as the case may be, of the legal representative of the deceased person to the connection appearing on the trade mark, and may refuse to proceed with the application unless the applicant furnishes the registrar with such consent.

 

15. Registration of parts of trade marks and of trade marks as a series

 

    (1) Where the proprietor of a trade mark claims to be entitled to the exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he may apply to register the whole and the part as separate trade marks.

 

    (2) Each such separate trade mark shall satisfy all the conditions applying to and have all the incidents of, an independent trade mark.

 

    (3) Where a person claiming to be the proprietor of several trade marks in respect of the same or similar goods or services or description of goods or description of services, which, while resembling each other in the material particulars thereof, yet differ in respect of -

 

        (a) statement of the. goods or services in relation to which they are respectively used or proposed to be used; or

 

        (b) statement of number, price, quality or names of places; or

 

        (c) other matter of a non-distinctive character which does not substantially affect the identity of the trade mark; or

 

        (d) colour, seeks to register those trade marks, they may be registered as a series in one registration.

 

16. Registration of trade, marks as associated trade marks

 

    (1) Where a trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in respect of any goods or services is identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services or so nearly resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may, at any time, require that the trade marks shall be entered on the register as associated trade marks.

 

    (2) Where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration in the name of the same proprietor, in respect of goods and in respect of services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description and with those services or services of that description, sub-section (1) shall apply as it applies as where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services.

 

    (3) Where a trade mark and any part thereof are, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 15, registered as separate trade marks in the name of the same proprietor, they shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

 

    (4) All trade marks registered in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 15 as a series in one registration shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

 

    (5) On application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor of two or more trade marks registered as associated trade marks, the Registrar may dissolve the association as respects any of them if he is satisfied that there would be no likelihood of deception or confusion being caused if that trade mark were used by any other person in relation to any of the goods or services or both in respect of which it is registered, and may amend the register accordingly.

 

17. Effect of registration of parts of a mark

 

    (1) When a trade mark consists of several matters, its registration shall confer on the proprietor exclusive right to the use of the trade mark taken as a whole.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a trademark-

 

        (a) contains any part -

 

            (i) which is not the subject of a separate application by the proprietor for registration as a trade mark; or

 

            (ii) which is not separately registered by the proprietor as a trade mark; or

 

        (b) contains any matter which is common to the trade or is otherwise of a non-distinctive character, the registration thereof shall not confer any exclusive right in the matter forming only a part of the whole of the trade mark so registered.

 

 

                  CHAPTER III: PROCEDURE FOR AND DURATION OF REGISTRATION

 

 

18. Application for registration

 

    (1) Any person claiming to be the proprietor of a trade mark used or purposed to be used by him, who is desirous of registering it, shall apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner for the registration of his trade mark.

 

    (2) A single application may be made for registration of a trademark for different classes of goods and services and fee payable therefor shall be in respect of each such class of goods or services.

 

    (3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the principal place of business in India of the applicant or in the case of joint applicants the principal place of business in India of the applicant whose name is first mentioned in the application as having a place of business in India, is situate:

 

    PR0VIDED that where the applicant or any of the joint applicants does not carry on business in India, the application shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the place mentioned in the address for service in India as disclosed in the application, is situate.

 

    (4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it absolutely or subject to such amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, if any, as he may think fit.

 

    (5) In the case of a refusal or conditional acceptance of an application, the Registrar shall record in writing the grounds for such refusal or conditional acceptance and the materials used by him in arriving at his decision.

 

19. Withdrawal of acceptance

 

Where, after the acceptance of an application for registration of a trade mark but before its registration, the Registrar is satisfied -

 

    (a) that the application has been accepted in error; or

 

    (b) that in the circumstances of the case the trade mark should not be registered. or should be registered subject to conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the application has been accepted, the Registrar may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, withdraw the acceptance and proceed as if the application had not been accepted.

 

20. Advertisement of application

 

    (1) When an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted, whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted together with the conditions or limitations, if any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in the prescribed manner:

 

    PROVIDED that the Registrar may cause the application to be advertised before acceptance if it relates to a trade mark to which sub-section (1) of section 9 and sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 11 apply, or in any other case where it appears to him that it is expedient by reason of any exceptional circumstances so to do.

    (2) Where -

 

        (a) an application has been advertised before acceptance under sub-section (1) ; or

 

        (b) after advertisement of an application, -

 

            (i) an error in the application has been corrected; or

 

            (ii) the application has been permitted to be amended under section 22,

 

the Registrar may in his discretion cause the application to be advertised again or in any case falling under clause (b) may, instead of causing the application to be advertised again, notify in the prescribed manner the correction or amendment made in the application.

 

21. Opposition to registration

 

    (1) Any person may, within three months from the date of the advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration or within such further period, not exceeding one month in the aggregate, as the Registrar, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, allows, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner to the Registrar, of opposition to the registration.

 

    (2) The Registrar shall serve a copy of the notice on the applicant for registration and, within two months from the receipt by the applicant of such copy of the notice of opposition, the applicant shall send to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a counter-statement of the grounds on which he relies for his application, and if he does not do so he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.

 

    (3) If the applicant sends such counter-statement, the Registrar shall serve a copy thereof on the person giving notice of opposition.

 

    (4) Any evidence upon which the opponent and the applicant may rely shall be submitted in the   prescribed manner and within the prescribed time to the Registrar, and the Registrar shall give an opportunity to them to be heard, if they so desire.

 

    (5) The Registrar shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide whether and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, the registration is to be permitted, and may take into account a ground of objection whether relied upon by the opponent or not.

 

    (6) Where a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counter-statement after receipt of a copy of such notice neither resides nor carries. on business in India, the Registrar may require him to give security for the costs of proceedings before him, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the opposition or application, as the case may be, as abandoned.

 

    (7) The Registrar may, on request, permit correction of any error in, or any amendment of, a notice of opposition or a counter-statement on such terms as he thinks just.

 

22. Correction and amendment

 

The Registrar may, on such terms as he thinks just, at any time, whether before or after acceptance of an application for registration under section 18, permit the correction of any error in or in connection with the application or permit an amendment of the application:

 

PROVIDED that if an amendment is made to a single application referred to in sub-section (2) of section 18 involving division of such application into two or more applications, the date of making of the initial application shall be deemed to be the date of making of the divided applications so divided.

 

23. Registration

 

    (1) Subject to the provisions of section 19, when an application for registration of trade mark has been accepted and either-

 

        (a) the application has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired; or

 

        (b) the application has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant,

 

the Registrar shall, unless the Central Government otherwise directs, register the said trade mark and the trade mark when registered shall be registered as of the date of the making of the said application and that date shall, subject to the provisions of section 154, be deemed to be the date of registration.

 

    (2) On the registration of a trade mark, the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a certificate in the prescribed form of the registration thereof, sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

 

    (3) Where registration of a trade mark is not completed within twelve months from the date of the application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is completed within the time specified in that behalf in the notice.

 

    (4) The Registrar may amend the register or a certificate of registration for the purpose of correcting a clerical error or an obvious mistake.

 

24. Jointly owned trade marks

 

    (1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), nothing in this Act shall authorise the registration of two or more persons who use a trade mark independently, or propose so to use it, as joint proprietors thereof.

 

    (2) Where the relations between two or more persons interested in a trade. mark are such that no one of them is entitled as between himself and the other or others of them to use it except-

 

        (a) on behalf of both or all of them; or

 

        (b) in relation to an article or service with which both or all of" them are connected in the course of trade, those persons may be registered as joint proprietors of the trade mark, and this Act shall have effect in relation to any rights to the use of the trade mark vested in those persons as if those rights had been vested in a single person.

 

25. Duration, renewal, removal and restoration of registration

 

    (1) The registration of a trade mark, after the commencement of this Act, shall be for a period of ten years, but may be renewed from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section.

 

    (2) The Registrar shall, on application made by the registered proprietor of a trade mark in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed period and subject to payment of the prescribed fee, renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred to as the expiration of the last registration).

 

    (3) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a trade mark the Registrar shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor of the date of expiration and the conditions as to payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained, and, if at the expiration of the time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied with the Registrar may remove the trade mark from the register:

 

    PROVIDED that the Registrar shall not remove the trade mark from the register if an application is made in the prescribed form and the prescribed fee and surcharge is paid within six months from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark and shall renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years under sub-section (2).

 

    (4) Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed fee, the Registrar shall, after six months and within one year from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark, on receipt of an application in the prescribed form and on payment of the prescribed fee, if satisfied that it is just so to do, restore the trade mark to the register and renew the registration of the trade mark either generally or subject to such conditions or limitations as he thinks fit to impose, for a period of ten years from the expiration of the last registration.

 

26. Effect of removal from register for failure to pay fee for renewal

 

Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose of any application for the registration of another trade mark during one year, next after the date of the removal, be deemed to be a trade mark already on the register, unless the tribunal is satisfied either-

 

    (a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the trade mark which has been removed during the two years immediately preceding its removal; or

 

    (b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the trade mark which is the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the trade mark which has been removed.

 

 

                                         CHAPTER IV: EFFECT OF REGISTRATION

 

 

27. No action for infringement of unregistered trade mark

 

    (1) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trade mark.

 

    (2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off goods or services as the goods of another person or as services provided by another person, or the remedies in respect thereof.

 

28. Rights conferred by registration

 

    (1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the registration of a trade mark shall, if valid, give to the registered proprietor of the trade mark the exclusive right to the use of the trade mark in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the trade mark in the manner provided by this Act.

 

    (2) The exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

 

    (3) Where two or more persons are registered proprietors of trade marks, which are identical with or nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those trade marks shall not (except so far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register) be deemed to have been acquired by any one of those persons as against any other of those persons merely by registration of the trade marks but each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other persons (not being registered users using by way of permitted use) as he would have if he were the sole registered proprietor.

 

29. Infringement of registered trade marks

 

    (1) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which is identical with, or deceptively similar to, the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being used as a trade mark.

 

    (2) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which because of-

 

        (a) its identity with the registered trade mark and the similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

 

        (b) its similarity to the registered trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

 

        (c) its identity with the registered trade mark and the identity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark, is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public, or which is likely to have an association with the registered trade mark.

 

    (3) In any case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (2), the court shall presume that it is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public.

 

    (4) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person. using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which-

 

        (a) is identical with or similar to the registered trade mark; and

 

        (b) is used in relation to goods or services which are not similar to those for which the trade mark is registered; and

 

        (c) the registered trade mark has a reputation in India and the use of the mark without due cause takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to, the distinctive character or repute of the registered trade mark.

 

    (5) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person if he uses such registered trade mark, as his trade name or part of his trade name, or name of his business concern or part of the name, of his business concern dealing in goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

 

    (6) For the purposes of this section, a person uses a registered mark, if, in particu1ar, he-

 

        (a) affixes it to goods or the packaging thereof;

 

        (b) offers or exposes goods for sale, puts them on the market, or stocks them for those purposes under. the registered trade mark, or offers or supplies services under the registered trade mark;

 

        (c) imports or exports goods under the mark; or

 

        (d) uses the registered trade mark on business papers or in advertising.

 

    (7) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who applies such registered trade mark to a material intended to be used for labelling or packaging goods, as a business paper, or for advertising goods or services, provided such person, when he applied the mark, knew or had reason to believe that the application of the mark was not duly authorised by the proprietor or a licensee.

 

    (8) A registered trade mark is infringed by any advertising of that trade mark if such advertising-

 

        (a) takes unfair advantage of and is contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters; or

 

        (b) is detrimental to its distinctive character; or

 

        (c) is against the reputation of the trade mark.

 

    (9) Where the distinctive elements of a registered trade mark consist of or include words, the trade mark may be infringed by the spoken use of those words as well as by their visual representation and reference in this section to the use of a mark shall be construed accordingly.

 

30. Limits on effect of registered trade mark

 

    (1) Nothing in section 29 shall be construed as preventing the use of a registered trade mark by any person for the purposes of identifying goods or services as those of the proprietor provided the use-

 

        (a) is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and

 

        (b) is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the trade mark.

 

    (2 ) A registered trade mark is not infringed where-

 

        (a) the use in relation to goods or services indicates the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, geographical origin, the time of production of goods or of rendering of services or other characteristics of goods or services;

 

        (b) a trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations, the use of the trade mark in any manner in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available or acceptance in any place or country outside India or in any other circumstances, to which, having regard to those conditions or limitations, the registration does not extend;

 

        (c) the use by a person of a trade mark-

 

            (i) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark if, as to those goods or a bulk or which they form part, the registered proprietor or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trade mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the trade mark; or

 

            (ii) in relation to services to which the proprietor of such mark or of a registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the mark, where the purpose and effect of the use of the mark is to indicate, in accordance with the fact, that those services have been performed by the proprietor or a registered user of the mark;

 

        (d) the use of a trade mark by a person in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods or services in relation to which the trade mark has been used without infringement of the right given by registration under this Act or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the trade mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted, and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the trade mark is to indicate, otherwise than in accordance with the fact, a connection in the course of trade between any person and the goods or services, as the case may be;

 

        (e) the use of a registered trade mark, being one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration under this Act.

 

    (3) Where the goods bearing a registered trade mark are lawfully acquired by a person, the sale of the goods in the market or otherwise dealing in those goods by that person or by a person claiming under or through him is not infringement of a trade by reason only of-

 

        (a) the registered trade mark having been assigned by the registered proprietor to some other person, after the acquisition of those goods; or

 

        (b) the goods having been put on the market under the registered trade mark by the proprietor or with his consent.

 

    (4) Sub-section (3) shall not apply where there exists legitimate reasons for the proprietor to oppose further dealings in the goods in particular, where the condition of the goods, has been changed or impaired after they have been put on the market.

 

31. Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity

 

    (1) In all legal proceedings relating to a trade mark registered under this Act (including applications under section 57), the original registration of the trade mark and of all subsequent assignments and transmissions of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of the validity thereof;

 

    (2) In all legal proceedings as aforesaid a registered trade mark shall not be held to be invalid on the ground that it was not a registrable trade mark under section 9 except upon evidence of distinctiveness and that such evidence was not submitted to the Registrar before registration, if it is proved that the trade mark had been so used by the registered proprietor or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration.

 

32. Protection of registration on ground of distinctiveness in certain cases

 

Where a trade mark is registered in breach of sub-section (1) of section 9, it shall not be declared invalid if, in consequence of the use which has been made of it, it has after registration and before commencement of any legal proceedings challenging the validity of such registration, acquired a distinctive character in relation to the goods or services for which it is registered.

 

33. Effect of acquiescence

 

    (1) Where the proprietor of an earlier trade mark has acquiesced for a continuous period of five years in the use of a registered trade mark, being aware of that use, he shall no longer be entitled on the basis of that earlier trade mark-

 

        (a) to apply for a declaration that the registration of the later trade mark is invalid, or

 

        (b) to oppose the use of the later trade mark in relation to the goods or services in relation to which it has been so used, unless the registration of the later trade mark was not applied in good faith.

 

    (2) Where sub-section (1) applies, the proprietor of the later trade mark is not entitled to oppose the use of the earlier trade mark, or as the case may be, the exploitation of the earlier right, notwithstanding that the earlier trade mark may no longer be invoked against his later trade mark.

 

34. Saving for vested rights

 

Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of registered trade mark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or nearly resembling it in relation to goods or services in relation to which that person or a predecessor in title of his has continuously used that trade mark from a date prior-

 

    (a) to the use of the first-mentioned trade mark in relation to those goods or services be the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his; or

 

    (b) to the date of registration of the first-mentioned trade mark in respect of those goods or services in the name of the proprietor of a predecessor in title of his;

 

whichever is the earlier, and the Registrar shall not refuse (on such use being proved) to register the second mentioned trade mark by reason only to the registration of the first-mentioned trade mark.

 

35. Saving for use of name, address or description of goods or services

 

Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered trade mark to interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place of business, or of the name, or of the name of the place of business, of any of his predecessors in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of his goods or services.

 

36. Saving for words used as name or description of an article or substance or service

 

    (1) The registration of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of any use after the date of the registration of any word or words which the trade mark contains or of which it consists as the name or description of an article or substance or service:

 

    PROVIDED that, if it is proved either-

 

        (a) that there is a well known and established use of the said word as the name or description of the article or substance or service by a person or persons carrying on trade therein, not being use in relation to goods or services connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark or (in the case of a certification trade mark) in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor; or

 

        (b) that the article or substance was formerly manufactured under a patent that a period of two years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed and that the said word is the only practicable name or description of the article or substance, the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply.

 

    (2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1) are proved with respect to any words, then,-

 

        (a) for the purposes of any proceedings under section 57 if the trade mark consists solely of such words, the registration of the trade mark, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or substance in question or of any goods of the same description, or of the services or of any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to be an entry wrongly remaining on the register;

 

        (b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark,-

 

            (i) if the trade mark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this Act or any other law to the use of the trade mark; or

 

            (ii) if the trade mark contains such words and other matter, all such right of the proprietor to the use of such words, in relation to the article or substance or to any goods of the same description, or to the services or to any services of the same description as the case requires, shall be deemed to have ceased on the date on which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1) first became well known and established or at the expiration of the period of two years mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

 

 

                                     CHAPTER V: ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSMISSION

 

37. Power of registered proprietor to assign and give receipts

 

The person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of a trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Act and to any rights appearing from the register to be vested in any other person, have power to assign the trade mark, and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment.

 

38. Assignability and transmissibility of registered trade marks

 

Notwithstanding anything in any other law to the contrary, a registered trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be assignable and transmissible, whether with or without the goodwill of the business concerned and in respect either of all the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered or of some only of those goods or services.

 

39. Assignability and transmissibility of unregistered trade marks

 

An unregistered trade mark may be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.

 

40. Restriction on assignment or transmission where multiple exclusive rights would be created

 

    (1) Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law, exclusive rights in more than one of the persons concerned to the use, in relation to-

 

        (a) same goods or services;

 

        (b) same description of goods or services;

 

        (c) goods or services or description of goods or services which are associated with each other, of trade marks nearly resembling each other or of identical trade mark, if having regard to the similarity of the goods and services and to the similarity of the trade marks, the use of the trade marks in exercise of those rights would be likely to deceive or cause confusion:

 

    PROVIDED that an assignment or transmission shall not be deemed to be invalid under this sub-section if the exclusive rights subsisting as a result thereof in the persons concerned respectively are, having regard to limitations imposed thereon, such as not to be exercisable by two or more of those persons in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, within India otherwise than for export therefrom, or in relation to goods to be exported to the same market outside India or in relation to services for use at any place in India or any place outside India in relation to services available for acceptance in India.

 

    (2) The proprietor of a registered trade mark who proposes to assign it may submit to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a statement of case setting out the circumstances and the Registrar may issue to him a certificate stating whether, having regard to the similarity of the goods or services and of the trade marks referred to in the case, the proposed assignment would or would not be invalid under sub-section (1),and a certificate so issued shall, subject to appeal and unless it is shown that the certificate was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be conclusive as to the validity or invalidity under sub-section (1) of the assignment in so far as such validity or invalidity depends upon the facts set out in the case, but, as regards a certificate in favour of validity, only if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the certificate is issued.

 

41. Restriction on assignment or transmission when exclusive rights would be created in different parts of India

 

Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law-

 

    (a) an exclusive right in one of the persons concerned, to the use of the trade mark limited. to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place in India, or in relation to services for use, or services available for acceptance in any place in India; and

 

    (b) an exclusive right in another of these persons concerned, to the use of a trade mark nearly resembling the first-mentioned trade mark or of an identical trade mark in relation to-

 

        (i) the same goods or services; or

 

        (ii) the same description of goods or services; or

 

        (iii) services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description or goods which are associated with those services or services of that description, limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, or services for use, or available for acceptance, in any other place in India:

 

 

    PROVIDED that in any such case, on application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor of a trade mark who proposes to assign it, or by a person who claims that a registered trade mark has been transmitted to him or to a predecessor in title of his since the commencement of this Act, the Registrar, if he is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trade mark in exercise of the said rights would not be contrary to the public interest may approve the assignment or transmission, and an assignment or transmission so approved shall not, unless it is shown that the approval was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be deemed to be invalid under this section or section 40 if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the approval is given or, in the case of a transmission, was made before that date.

 


 

42. Conditions for assignment otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of a business

 

Where an assignment of a trade mark, whether registered or unregistered is made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of the business in which the mark has been or is used, the assignment shall not take effect unless the assignee, not later than the expiration of six months from the date on which the assignment is made or within such extended period, if any, not exceeding three months in the aggregate, as the Registrar may allow, applies to the Registrar for directions with respect to the advertisement of the assignment, and advertises it in such form and manner and within such period as the Registrar may direct.

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, an assignment of a trade mark of the following description shall not be deemed to be an assignment made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of the business in which the mark is used, namely:-

 

    (a) an assignment of a trade mark in respect only of some of the goods or services for which the trade mark is registered accompanied by the transfer of the goodwill of the business concerned in those goods or services only; or

 

    (b) an assignment of a trade mark which is used in relation to goods exported from India or in relation to services for use outside India if the assignment is accompanied by the transfer of the goodwill of the export business only.

 

43. Assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks

 

A certification trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Registrar, for which application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner.

 

 

44. Assignability and transmissibility or associated trade marks

 

Associated trade marks shall be assignable and transmissible only as a whole and not separately, but, subject to the provisions of this Act, they shall, for all other purposes, be deemed to have been registered as separate trade marks.

 

 

45. Registration of assignments and transmissions

 

    (1) Where a person becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trade mark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall, on receipt of the application and on proof of title to his satisfaction, register him as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of the goods or services in respect of which the assignment or transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of the assignment or transmission to be entered on the register:

 

    PROVIDED that where the validity of an assignment or transmission is in dispute between the parties, the Registrar may refuse to register the assignment or transmission until the rights of the parties have been determined by a competent court.

 

    (2) Except for the purpose of an application before the Registrar under sub-section (1) or an appeal from an order thereon, or an application under section 57 or an appeal from an order thereon, a document or instrument in respect of which no entry has been made in the register in accordance with sub-section (1), shall not be admitted in evidence by the Registrar or the Appellate Board or any court in proof of title to the trade mark by assignment or transmission unless the Registrar or the Appellate Board or the court. as the case may be, otherwise directs.

 

 

                 CHAPTER VI: USE OF TRADE MARK AND REGISTERED USERS

 

46. Proposed use of trade mark by company to be formed, etc.

 

    (1) No application for the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall be refused nor shall permission for such registration be withheld, on the ground only that it appears that the applicant does not use or propose to use the trade mark if the Registrar is satisfied that-

 

        (a) a company is about to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 and that the applicant intends to assign the trade mark to that company with a view to the use thereof in relation to those goods or services by the company, or

 

        (b) the proprietor intends it to be used by a person, as a registered user after the registration of the trade mark.

 

    (2) The provisions of section 47 shall have effect, in relation to trade mark registered under the powers conferred by this sub-section, as if for the reference, in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of that section, to the intention on the part of an applicant for registration that a trade mark should be used by him there were substituted a reference to the intention on his part that it should be used by the company or registered user concerned.

 

    (3) The tribunal may, in case to which sub-section (1) applies, require the applicant to give security for the costs of any proceedings relating to any opposition or appeal, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the application as abandoned.

 

    (4) Where in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, a trade mark in respect of any goods or services is registered in the name of an applicant who, relies on intention to assign the trade mark to a company, then, unless within such period as may be prescribed or within such further period not exceeding six months as the Registrar may, on application being made to him in the prescribed manner, allow, the company has been registered as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of those goods or services, the registration shall cease to have effect in respect thereof at the expiration of that period and the Registrar shall amend the register accordingly.

 

47. Removal from register and imposition of limitations on ground of non-use

 

    (1) A registered trade mark may be taken off the register in respect of the goods or services in respect of which it is registered on application made in the prescribed manner to the Registrar or the Appellate Board by any person aggrieved on the ground either-

 

        (a) that the trade mark was registered without any bona fide intention on the part of the applicant for registration that it should be used in relation to those goods or services by him or, in a case to which the provisions of section 46 apply, by the company concerned or the registered user, as the case may be, and that there has, in fact, been no bona fide use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being up to a date three months before the date of the application; or

 

        (b) that up to a date three months before the date of the application, a continuous period of five years from the date on which the trade mark is actually entered in the register or longer had elapsed during which the trade mark was registered and during which there was no bona fide use thereof in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being:

 

    PROVIDED that except where the applicant has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of the goods or services in question, or where the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark, the tribunal may refuse an application under clause (a) or clause (b) in relation to any goods or services, if it is shown that there has been, before the relevant date or during the relevant period, as the case may be, bona fide use of the trade mark by any proprietor thereof for the time being in relation to-

 

        (i) goods or services of the same description; or

 

        (ii) goods or services associated with those goods or services of that description being goods or services, as the case may be, in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

 

    (2) Where in relation to any goods or services in respect of which a trade mark is registered-

 

        (a) the circumstances referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) are shown to exist so far as regards non-use of the trade mark in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in a particular place in India (otherwise than for export from India), or in relation to goods to be exported to a particular market outside India; or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in a particular place in India or for use in a particular market outside India; and

 

        (b) a person has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of those goods, under a registration extending to use in relation to goods to be so sold, or otherwise traded in, or in relation to goods to be so exported, or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in that place or for use in that country, or the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark,

 

on application by that person in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, the tribunal may impose on the registration of the first-mentioned trade mark such limitations as it thinks proper for securing that that registration shall cease to extend to such use.

 

    (3) An applicant shall not be entitled to rely for the purpose of clause (b) of sub-section (1) or for the purposes of sub-section (2) on any non-use of a trade mark which is shown to have been due to special circumstances in the trade, which includes restrictions on the use of the trade mark in India imposed by any law or regulation and not to any intention to abandon or not to use the trade mark in relation to the goods or services to which the application relates.

 

48. Registered users

 

    (1) Subject to the provisions of section 49, a person other than the registered proprietor of a trade mark may be registered as a registered user thereof in respect of any or all of the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

 

    (2) The permitted use of a trade  mark shall be deemed to be used by the proprietor thereof, and shall be deemed not to be used by a person other than the proprietor, for the purposes of section 47 or for any other purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

 

 

49. Registration as registered user

 

    (1) Where it is proposed that a person should be registered as a registered user of a trade mark, the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user shall jointly apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner, and every such application shall be accompanied by-

 

        (a) the agreement in writing or a duly authenticated copy thereof, entered into between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user with respect to the permitted use of the trade mark; and

 

        (b) an affidavit made by the registered proprietor or by some person authorised to the satisfaction of the Registrar to act on his behalf,-

 

            (i) giving particulars of the relationship, existing or proposed, between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user, including particulars showing the degree of control by the proprietor over the permitted use which their relationship will confer and whether it is a term of their relationship that the proposed registered user shall be the sole registered user or that there shall be any other restriction as to persons for whose registration as registered users application may be made;

 

            (ii) stating the goods or services in respect of which registration is proposed;

 

            (iii) stating the conditions or restrictions, if any, proposed with respect to the characteristics of the goods or services, to the mode or place of permitted use, or to any other matter;

 

            (iv) stating whether the permitted use is to be for a period or without limit of period, and, if for a period, the duration thereof; and

 

        (c) such further documents or other evidence as may be required by the Registrar or as may be prescribed.

 

    (2) When the requirements of sub-section (1) have been complies with, the Registrar shall register the propose registered user in respect of the goods or services as to which he is so satisfied.

 

    (3) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner of the registration of a person as a registered user, to other registered users of the trade mark, if any.

 

    (4) The Registrar shall, if so requested by the applicant, take steps for securing that information given for the purposes of an application under this section (other than matters entered in the register) is not disclosed to rivals in trade.

 

50. Power of Registrar for variation or cancellation of registration as registered user

 

    (1) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 57, the registration of a person as registered user-

 

        (a) may be varied by the Registrar as regards the goods or services in respect of which it has effect on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor of the trade mark;

 

        (b) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor or of the registered user or of any other registered user of the trade mark ;

 

        (c) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of any person on any of the following, rounds, namely:-

 

            (i) that the registered user has used the trade mark otherwise than in accordance with the agreement under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 or in such way as to cause or to be likely to cause, deception or confusion;

 

            (ii) that the proprietor or the registered user misrepresented, or failed to disclose, some fact material to the application for registration which if accurately represented or disclosed would not have justified the registration of the registered user;

 

            (iii) that the circumstances have changed since the date of registration in such a way that at the date of such application for cancellation they would not have justified registration of the registered user;

 

            (iv) that the registration ought not to have been effected having regard to rights vested in the applicant by virtue of a contract in the performance of which he is interested;

 

        (d) may be cancelled by the Registrar on his own motion or on the application in writing in the prescribed manner by any person, on the ground that any stipulation in the agreement between the registered proprietor and the registered user regarding the quality of the goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is to be used is either not being enforced or is not being complied with;

 

        (e) may be cancelled by the Registrar in respect of any goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is no longer registered.

 

    (2) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner in respect of every application under this section to the registered proprietor and each registered user (not being the applicant) of the trade mark.

 

    (3) The procedure for cancelling a registration shall be such as may be prescribed:

 

    PROVIDED that before cancelling of registration, the registered proprietor shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

 

51. Power of Registrar to call for information relating to agreement in respect of registered users

 

    (1) The Registrar may, at any time during the continuance of the registration of the registered user, by notice in writing, require the registered proprietor to confirm to him within one month that the agreement filed under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 continues to be in force.

 

    (2) If the registered proprietor fails to furnish the confirmation within one month as required under sub-section (1), the registered user shall cease to be the registered user on the day immediately after the expiry of the said period and the Registrar shall notify the same.

 

52. Right of registered user to take proceedings against infringement

 

    (1) Subject to any agreement subsisting between the parties, a registered user may institute proceedings for infringement in his own name as if he were the registered proprietor, making the registered proprietor a defendant and the rights and obligations of such registered user in such case being concurrent with those of the registered proprietor.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered proprietor so added as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceedings.

 

53. No right of permitted user to take proceeding against infringement

 

A person referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (r) of sub-section (1) of section 2 shall have no right to institute any proceeding for any infringement.

 

54. Registered user not to have right of assignment or transmission

 

Nothing in this Act shall confer   on a registered user of a trade mark any assignable or transmissible right to the use thereof.

 

Explanation I: The right of a registered user of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have been assigned or transmitted within the meaning of this section in the following cases, namely:-

 

    (a) where the registered user being an individual enters into a partnership with any other person for carrying on the business concerned; but in any such case the firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as the registered user is a member of the firm;

 

    (b) where the registered user being a firm subsequently undergoes a change in its constitution; but in any such case the reconstituted firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as any partner of the original firm at the time of its registration as registered user, continues to be a partner of the reconstituted firm;

 

Explanation II: For the purposes of Explanation I, "firm" has the same meaning as in the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.

 

55. Use of one of associated or substantially identical trade marks equivalent to use of another

 

    (1) Where under the provisions of this Act, use of a registered trade mark is required to be proved for any purpose, the tribunal may, if and, so far as it shall. think right, accept use of a registered associate trade mark, or of the trade mark with additions or alterations not substantially affecting its identity, as an equivalent for the use required to be proved.

 

    (2) The use of the whole of a registered trade mark shall, for the purpose of this Act, be deemed to be also use of any trade mark being a part thereof and registered in accordance with sub-section (1) of section 15 in the name of the same proprietor.

 

    (3) Notwithstanding anything in section32, the use of part of the registered trade mark in sub-section (2) shall not be conclusive as to its evidence of distinctiveness for any purpose under this Act.

 

56. Use of trade mark for export trade and use when form of trade connection changes

 

    (1) The application in India of trade mark to goods to be exported from India or in relation to services for use outside India and any other act done in India in relation to goods to be so exported or services so rendered outside India which, if done in relation to goods to be sold or services provided or otherwise traded in within India would constitute use of a trade mark therein, shall be deemed to constitute use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services for any purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

 

    (2) The use of a registered trade mark in relation to goods or services between which and the person using the mark any form of connection in the course of trade subsists shall not be deemed to be likely to cause deception or confusion on the ground only that the mark has been or is used in relation to goods or services between which and the said person or a predecessor in title of that person a different form of connection in the course of trade subsisted or subsists.

 

 

      CHAPTER VII: RECTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF THE REGISTER

 

 

57. Power to cancel or vary registration and to rectify the register

 

    (1) On application made in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar by any person aggrieved, the tribunal may make such order as it may think fit for cancelling or varying the registration of a trade mark on the ground of any contravention, or failure to observe a condition entered on the register in relation thereto.

 

    (2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, and the tribunal may make such order for making, expunging or varying the entry. as it may think fit.

 

    (3) The tribunal may in any proceeding under this section decide any question that may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register.

 

    (4) The tribunal, of its own motion, may, after giving notice in the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2).

 

    (5) Any order of the Appellate Board rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify the register accordingly.

 

58. Correction of register

 

      (1) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor,-

 

        (a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor of a trade mark, or any other entry; relating to the trade mark;

 

        (b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the person who is registered as proprietor of a trade mark;

 

        (c) cancel the entry of a trade mark on the register;

 

        (d) strike out any goods or classes of goods or services from those in respect of which a trade mark is registered,

 

and may make any consequential amendment or alteration in the certificate of registration, and for that purpose, may require the certificate of registration to be produced to him.

 

    (2) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by a registered user of a trade mark, and after notice to the registered proprietor, correct any error, or enter any change, in the name, address or description of the registered user.

 

 

59. Alteration of registered trade marks

 

 

    (1) The registered proprietor of a trademark may apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the trade mark in any manner not substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit

 

 

    (2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he. does so, if within the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the prescribed manner of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so required, decide the matter.

 

 

    (3) Where leave is granted under this section, the trade mark as altered shall be advertised in the prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section (2).

 

 

60. Adaptation of entries in register to amended or substituted classification of goods or services

 

 

    (1) The Registrar shall not make any amendment of the register which would have the effect of adding arty goods or classes, of goods or services to those in respect of which a trade mark is registered (whether in one or more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or of antedating the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services:

 

 

    PROVIDED that this sub-section, shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve undue complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would not affect any substantial quantity of goods or services and would not substantially prejudice the rights of any person.

 

 

    (2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be brought to the notice of the registered proprietor of the trade mark affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1).

 

                                        CHAPTER VIII: COLLECTIVE MARKS

 

61. Special provisions for collective marks

 

    (1) The provision of this Act shall apply to collective marks subject to the provisions contained in this Chapter.

 

    (2) In relation to a collective mark the reference in clause (zb) of sub-section (1) of section 2 to distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others shall be construed as a reference to distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others.

 

62. Collective mark not to be misleading as to character or significance

 

A collective mark shall not be registered if it is likely to deceive or cause confusion on the part of public in particular if it is likely to be taken to be something other than a collective mark, and in such case the Registrar may require that a mark in respect of which application is made for registration comprise some indication that it is a collective mark.

 

63. Application to be accompanied by regulations governing use of collective marks

 

    (1) An application for registration of a collective mark shall be accompanied by the regulations governing the use of such collective mark.

 

    (2) The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify the persons authorised to use the mark, the conditions of membership of the association and, the conditions of use of the mark, including any sanctions against misuse and such other matters as may be prescribed.

 

64. Acceptance of application and regulations by Registrar

 

If it appears to the Registrar that the requirements for registration are satisfied, he shall accept the application together with the regulations, either unconditionally or subject to such conditions including amendments of the said regulations, if any, as he may deem fit or refuse to accept it and if accepted shall notify the regulations.

 

65. Regulations to be open to inspection

 

The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall be open to public inspection in the same way as the register as provided in section 148.

 

66. Amendment of regulations

 

Any amendment of regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall not be effective unless the amended regulations are filed with the Registrar, and accepted and published by him in accordance with section 64.

 

67. Infringement proceedings by registered proprietor of collective mark

 

In a suit for infringement instituted by the registered proprietor of a collective mark as plaintiff the court shall take into account any loss suffered or likely to be suffered by authorised users and may give such directions as it thinks fit as to the extent to which the plaintiff shall hold the proceeds of any pecuniary remedy on behalf of such authorised users.

 

68. Additional grounds for removal of registration of collective mark

 

The registration of a collective mark may also be removed from the register on the ground-

 

    (a) that the manner in which the collective mark has been used by the proprietor or authorised user has caused it to become liable to mislead the public as a collective mark; or

 

    (b) that the proprietor has failed to observe, or to secure the observance of the regulations governing the use of the mark.

 

Explanation I : For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, ""authorised user" means a member of an association authorised to use the registered collective mark of the association.

 

Explanation II: For the purposes of this Act, use of a collective mark by an authorised user referred to in Explanation I shall be deemed to be the use by the registered proprietor thereof.

 

                                     CHAPTER IX: CERTIFICATION TRADE MARKS

 

 

69 Certain provisions of this Act not applicable to certification trade marks

 

The following provisions of this Act shall not apply to certification trade marks, that is to say,-

 

    (a) clauses (a) and (c) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

 

    (b) sections 18, 20 and 21, except as expressly applied by this Chapter;

 

    (c) sections 28, 29, 30, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54 and sub-section (2) of section 56;

 

    (d) Chapter XII, except section 107.

 

70. Registration of certification trade marks

 

A mark shall not be registrable as a certification trade mark in the name of a person who carries on a trade in goods of the kind certified or a trade of the provision of services of the kind certified.

 

71. Applications for registration of certification trade marks

 

    (1) An application for the registration of a mark as a certification trade mark shall be made to the Registrar in the prescribed manner by the person proposed to be registered as the proprietor thereof, and accompanied by a draft of the regulations to be deposited under section 74.

 

    (2) Subject to the provisions of section 70, the provisions of sections l8, 19 and 22 shall apply in relation to an application under this section as they apply in relation to an application under section 18, subject to the modification that reference therein to acceptance of an application shall be construed as reference to authorisation to proceed with an application.

 

    (3) In dealing under the said provisions with an application under this section, the tribunal shall have regard to the like considerations, so far as relevant, as if the application were applications under section 18 and to any other considerations relevant to applications under this section, including the desirability of securing that a certification trade mark shall comprise some indication that it is a certification trade mark.

 

72. Consideration of application for registration by the Registrar

 

    (1) The Registrar shall consider the application made under section 71 with regard to the following matters, namely:-

 

        (a) whether the applicant is competent to certify the goods in respect of which the mark is to be registered;

 

        (b) whether the draft of the regulations to be filed under section 74 is satisfactory;

 

        (c) whether in all the circumstances the registration applied for would be to the public advantage, and may either-

 

        (i) refuse the application; or

 

        (ii) accept the application and approve the said draft of the regulations either without modification and unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, or to any amendments or modifications of the application or of the regulations, which he thinks requisite having regard to any of the said matters.

 

    (2) Except in the case of acceptance and approval without modification and unconditionally, the Registrar shall not decide any matter under sub-section (1) without giving the applicant an opportunity of being heard.

 

73. Opposition to registration of certification trade marks

 

When an application has been accepted, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be thereafter, cause the application as accepted to be advertised in the prescribed manner, and the provisions of section 21 shall apply in relation to the registration of the mark as they apply in relation to an application under section 18.

 

74. Filing of regulations governing the use of a certification trade mark

 

    (1) There shall be filed at the Trade Marks Registry in respect of every mark registered as a certification trade mark regulations for governing the use thereof, which shall include provisions as to the cases in which the proprietor is to certify goods or services and to authorise the use of the certification trade mark, and may contain any other provisions which the Registrar may by general or special order, require or permit to be inserted therein (including provisions conferring a right of appeal to the Registrar against any refusal of the proprietor to certify goods or to authorise the use of the certification trade mark in accordance with the regulations); and regulations so filed shall be open to inspection in like manner as the register as provided in section 148.

 

    (2) The regulations so filed may, on the application of the registered proprietor, be altered by the Registrar.

 

    (3) The Registrar may cause such application to be advertised in any case where it appears to him expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the time specified in the advertisement any person gives notice of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall not decide the matter without giving the parties an opportunity of being heard.

 

75. Infringement of certification trade marks

 

The right conferred by section 78 is infringed by any person who, not being the registered proprietor of the certification trade mark or a person authorised by him in that behalf under the regulations filed under section 74, using it in accordance therewith, uses in the course of trade, a mark, which is identical with, or deceptively similar to the certification trade mark in relation to any goods or services in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being a use as a trade mark.

 

76. Acts not constituting infringement of certification trade marks

 

    (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the following acts do not constitute an infringement of the right to the use of a registered certification trade mark-

 

        (a) where a certification trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register, the use of any such mark in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in any place, country or territory or in any other circumstances, to which having regard to any such limitations, the registration does not extend;

 

        (b) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor of the mark if, as to those goods or services or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or another in accordance with his authorisation under the relevant regulations has applied the mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or the proprietor has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the mark;

 

        (c) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the mark has been used without infringement of the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact that the goods or services are certified by the proprietor.

 

    (2) Clause (b) of sub-:section (1) shall not apply to the case of use consisting of the application of a certification trade mark to goods or services, notwithstanding that they are such goods or services as are mentioned in that clause if such application is contrary to the regulations referred to in that clause.

 

    (3) Where a certification trade mark is one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act, which are identical or nearly resemble each other, the use of any of those trade marks in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right so given to the use of any other of those trade marks.

 

77. Cancellation or varying of registration of certification trade marks

 

The Registrar may, on the application in the prescribed manner of any person aggrieved and after giving the proprietor an opportunity of opposing the application, make such order as he fit for expunging or varying any entry in the register to a certification trade mark, or for varying the regulations, on any of the following grounds, namely:-

 

    (a) that the proprietor is no longer competent, in the case of any of the goods or services in respect of which the mark is registered, to certify those goods or services;

 

    (b) that the proprietor has failed to observe any provisions of the regulations to be observed on his part;

 

    (c) that it is no longer to the public advantage that the mark should remain registered;

 

    (d) that it is requisite for the public advantage that if the mark remains registered, the regulations should be varied.

 

78. Rights conferred by registration of certification trade marks

 

    (1) Subject to the provisions of sections 34, 35 and 76, the registration of a person as a proprietor of certification trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall, if valid, give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the mark in relation to those goods or services.

 

    (2) The exclusive right to the use of a certification trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

 

                

                          CHAPTER X: SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR TEXTILE GOODS

 

79. Textile goods

 

The Central Government may prescribe classes of goods (in this Chapter referred to as textile goods) to the trade marks used in relation to which the provisions of this chapter shall apply; and subject to the said provisions, the other provisions of this Act shall apply to such trade marks as they apply to trade marks used in relation to other classes of goods.

 

80. Restriction on registration of textile goods

 

    (1) In respect of textile goods being piece goods-

 

        (a) no mark consisting of a line heading alone shall be registrable as a trade mark;

 

        (b) a line heading shall not be deemed to be capable of distinguishing;

 

        (c) the registration of trade mark shall not give any exclusive right to the use of a line heading.

 

    (2) In respect of any textile goods, the registration of letters or numerals, or any combination thereof, shall be subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

 

81. Stamping of piece goods, cotton yam and thread

 

    (1) Piece goods, such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece, which have been manufactured, bleached, dyed, printed or finished in premises which are a factory, as defined in the Factories Act, 1948, shall not be removed for sale from the last of such premises in which they underwent any of the said processes without having conspicuously stamped in international form of Indian numerals on each piece the length thereof in standard yards, or in standard yards and a fraction of such a yard, or in standard metres or in standard metres and a fraction of such a metre, according to the real length of the piece, and, except when the goods are sold from the factory for export from India, without being conspicuously marked on each piece with the name of the manufacturer or of the occupier of the premises in which the piece was finally processed or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the piece.

 

    (2) Cotton yarn such as is ordinarily sold in bundles, and cotton thread, namely, sewing, darning, crochet or handicraft thread, which, have been manufactured, bleached, dyed or finished in any premises not exempted by the rules made under section 82 shall not be removed for sale from those premises unless, in accordance with the said rules in the case of yarn-

 

        (a) the bundles are conspicuously marked with an indication of the weight of yarn in English or the metric system in each bundles; and

 

        (b) the count of the yarn contained in the bundles and in the case of thread each unit is conspicuously marked with the length or weight of thread in the unit and in such other manner as may be required by the said rules; and

 

        (c) except where the goods are sold from the premises for export from India, unless each bundle or unit is conspicuously marked with the name of the manufacturer or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the goods:

 

    PROVIDED that the rules made under section 82 shall exempt all premises where the work is done by members of one family with or without the assistance of not more than ten other employees, and all premises controlled by a co-operative society where not more than twenty workers are employed in the premises.

 

82. Determination of character of textile goods by sampling

 

    (1) For the purposes of this Act, the Central Government may make rules-

 

        (a) to provide, with respect to any goods which purport or are alleged to be of uniform number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, for the number of samples to be selected and tested and for the selection of the samples;

 

        (b) to provide, for the manner in which for the purposes of section 81 cotton yarn and cotton thread shall be marked with the particulars required by that section, and for the exemption of certain premises used for the manufacture, bleaching, dying or finishing of cotton yarn or cotton thread from the provisions of, that section; and

 

        (c) declaring what classes of goods are included in the expression "piece goods such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece" for the purpose of section 81, of this Act or clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962.

 

    (2) With respect to any goods for the selection and testing of samples of which provision is not made in any rules for the time being in force under sub-section (1), the court of officer of customs, as the case may be, having occasion to ascertain the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of the goods, shall, by order in writing, determine the number of samples to be selected and tested and the manner in which the samples are to be selected.

 

    (3) The average of the results of the testing in pursuance of rules under sub-section (1) or of an order under sub-section (2) shall be prima facie evidence of the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

 

    (4) If a person having any claim to, or in relation to, any goods of which samples have been selected and tested in pursuance of rules under sub-section (1), or of an order under sub-section (2), desires that any further samples of the goods be selected and tested, such further samples shall, on his written application and on the payment in advance by him to the court or Officer of customs, as the case may be, of such sums for defraying the cost of the further selection and testing as the court or officer may from time to time require, be selected and tested to such extent as may be permitted by rules made by the Central Government in this behalf or as, in the case of goods with respect to which provision is not made in such rules, the court or officer of customs may determine in the circumstances to be reasonable, the samples being selected in the manner prescribed under sub-section (1), or in sub-section (2), as the case may be.

 

    (5) The average of the results of the testing referred to in sub-section (3) and of the further testing under sub-section (4) shall be conclusive proof of the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

 

         

                                      CHAPTER XI: APPELLATE BOARD

 

83. Establishment of Appellate Board

 

The Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, establish an Appellate Board to be known as the Intellectual Property Appellate Board to exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on it by or under this Act.

 

84. Composition of Appellate Board

 

    (1) The Appellate Board shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and such number of other Members, as the Central Government may, deem fit and, subject to the other provisions of this Act, the jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Appellate Board may be exercised by Benches thereof.

 

    (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Bench shall consist of one Judicial Member and one Technical Member and shall sit at such place as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

 

    (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Chairman-

 

        (a) may, in addition to discharging the functions of the Judicial Member or Technical Member of the Bench to which he is appointed, discharge the functions of the Judicial Member or, as the case may be, the Technical Member, of any other Bench;

 

        (b) may transfer a Member from one Bench to another Bench;

 

        (c) may authorise the Vice-Chairman, the Judicial Member or the Technical Member appointed to one Bench to discharge also the functions of the Judicial Member or the Technical member, as the case may be, of another Bench.

 

    (4) Where any Benches are constituted, the Central Government may, from time to time, by notification, make provisions as to the distribution of the business of the Appellate Board amongst the Benches and specify the matters which may be dealt with by each Bench.

 

    (5) If any question arises as to whether any matter falls within the purview of the business allocated to a Bench, the decision of the Chairman shall be final.

 

    Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the expression matter" includes an appeal under section 91.

 

    (6) If the Members of a Bench differ in opinion on any point, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and make a reference to the Chairman who shall either hear the point or points himself or refer the case for hearing on such point or points by one or more of the other Members and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of the Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

 

85. Qualifications for appointment as Chairman, Vice-Chairman, or other Members

 

    (1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairman unless he-

 

        (a) is, or has been, a judge of a High Court; or

 

        (b) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Vice-Chairman.

 

    (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Vice-Chairman, unless he-

 

        (a) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Judicial Member or a Technical Member; or

 

        (b) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held a post in Grade I of that Service or any higher post for at least five years.

 

    (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judicial Member, unless he-

 

        (a) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held the post in Grade 1 of that Service for at least three years; or

 

        (b) has, for at least ten years, held a civil judicial office.

 

    (4) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Technical Member, unless he-

 

        (a) has, for at least ten years, exercised functions of a tribunal under this Act or under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958, or both, and has held a post not lower than the post of a Joint Registrar for at least five years; or

 

        (b) has, for at least ten years, been an advocate of a proven specialised experience in trade mark law.

 

    (5) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (6), the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and every other Member shall be appointed by the President of India.

 

    (6) No appointment of a person as the Chairman shall be made except after. consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

 

86. Term of office of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members

 

The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Members shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office or until he attains,-

 

    (a) in the case of Chairman and Vice-Chairman, the age of sixty-five years; and

 

    (b) in the case of a Member, the age of sixty-two years, whichever is earlier.

 

87. Vice-Chairman or senior-most Member to act as Chairman or discharge his functions in certain circumstances

 

    (1) In the event of or any vacancy in the office of the Chairman by reasons of his death, resignation or otherwise, the Vice-Chairman and in his absence the senior-most Member shall act as Chairman until the date on which a new Chairman, appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy, enters upon his office.

 

    (2) When the Chairman is unable to discharge his functions owing to his absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-Chairman and in his absence the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the Chairman until the date on which the Chairman resumes his duty.

 

88. Salaries, allowances. and other terms and conditions of service of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members

 

    (1) The salaries and allowances payable to, and other terms and conditions of service (including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits) of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members shall be such as may be prescribed.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a person who, immediately before the date of assuming office as the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member was in service of Government, shall be deemed to have retired from service on the date on which he enters upon office as the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member.

 

89. Resignation and removal

 

    (1) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the President of India, resign his office:

 

    PROVIDED that the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member shall, unless he is permitted by the President of India to relinquish his office sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is earlier.

 

    (2) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member shall not be removed from his office except by an order made by the President of India on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court in which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member had been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges.

 

    (3) The Central Government may, by rules, regulate the procedure for the investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member referred to in sub-section (2).

 

90. Staff of Appellate Board

 

    (1) The Central Government shall determine the nature and categories of the officers and other employees required to assist the Appellate Board in the discharge of its functions and provide the Appellate Board with such officers and other employees as it may think fit.

 

    (2) The salaries and allowances and conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall be such as may be prescribed.

 

    (3) The officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Chairman in the manner as may be prescribed.

 

91. Appeals to Appellate Board

 

    (1) Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the Registrar under this Act, or the rules made thereunder may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Board within three months from the date on which the order or decision sought to be appealed against is communicated to such person preferring the appeal.

 

    (2) No appeal shall be admitted if it is preferred after the expiry of the period specified under sub-section (1):

 

    PROVIDED that an appeal may be admitted after the expiry of the period specified therefor, if the appellant satisfies the Appellate Board that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within the specified period.

 

    (3) An appeal to the Appellate Board shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in the prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order or decision appealed against and by such fees as may be prescribed.

 

92. Procedure and powers of Appellate Board

 

    (1) The Appellate Board shall not be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 but shall be guided by principles of natural justice and subject to such provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, the Appellate Board shall have powers to regulate its own procedure including the fixing of places and times of its hearing.

 

    (2) The Appellate Board shall have, for the purpose of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:-

 

        (a) receiving evidence;

 

        (b) issuing commissions for examination of witness;

 

        (c) requisitioning any public record; and

 

        (d) any other matter which may be prescribed.

 

    (3) Any proceeding before the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purpose of section 196, of the Indian Penal Code, and the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a civil court for all the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

 

93. Bar of jurisdiction of courts, etc.

 

No court or other authority shall have or, be entitled to, exercise any jurisdiction, powers or authority in relation to the matters referred to in sub-section (1) of section 91.

 

94. Bar to appear before Appellate Board

 

On ceasing to hold office, the Chairman, Vice-chairman or other Members shall not appear before the Appellate Board or the Registrar.

 

95. Conditions as to making of interim orders

 

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act or in any other law for the time being in force, no interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay or any other manner) shall be made on, or in any proceedings relating to, an appeal unless-

 

    (a) copies of such appeal and of all documents in support of the plea for such interim order are furnished to the party against whom such appeal is made or proposed to be made; and

 

    (b) opportunity is given to such party to be heard in the matter.

 

96. Power of Chairman to transfer cases from one Bench to another

 

On the application of any of the parties and after notice to the parties, and after hearing such of them as he may desire to be heard or on his own motion without such notice, the Chairman may transfer any case pending before one Bench, for disposal, to any other Bench.

 

97. Procedure for application for rectification, etc., before Appellate Board

 

    (1) An application for rectification of the register made to the Appellate Board under section 57 shall be in such form as may be prescribed.

 

    (2) A certified copy of every order or judgement of the Appellate Board relating to a registered trade mark under this Act shall be communicated to the Registrar by the Board and the Registrar shall give effect to the order of the Board and shall, when so directed, amend the entries in, or rectify, the register in accordance with such order.

 

98. Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings

 

    (1) The Registrar shall have the right to appear and be heard-

 

        (a) in any legal proceedings before the Appellate Board in which the relief sought includes alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the Trade Marks Registry is raised;

 

        (b) in any appeal to the Board from an order of the Registrar on an application for registration of a trade mark-

 

            (i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Registrar or is accepted by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or

 

            (ii) which has been opposed and the Registrar considers that his appearance is necessary in the public interest, and the Registrar shall appear in any case if so directed by the Board.

 

    (2) Unless the Appellate Board otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the practice of the Trade Marks Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding.

 

99. Costs of Registrar in proceedings before Appellate Board

 

In all proceedings under this Act before the Appellate Board the costs of the Registrar shall be in the discretion of the Board, but the Registrar shall not be ordered to pay the costs of any of the parties.

 

100. Transfer of pending proceedings to Appellate Board

 

All cases of appeals against any order or decision of the Registrar and all cases pertaining to rectification of register, pending before any High Court, shall be transferred to the Appellate Board from the date as notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette and the Appellate Board may proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

 

 

                           CHAPTER XII: OFFENCES, PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE

 

101. Meaning of applying trade marks and trade descriptions

 

    (1) A person shall be deemed to apply a trade mark or mark or trade description to goods or services who-

 

        (a) applies it to the goods themselves or uses it in relation to services; or

 

        (b) applies it to any package in or with which the goods are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture; or

 

        (c) places, encloses or annexes any goods which are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, in or with any package or other thing to which a trade mark or mark or trade description has been applied; or

 

        (d) uses a trade mark or mark or trade description in any manner reasonably likely to lead to the belief that the goods or services in connection with which it is used are designated or described by that trade mark or mark or trade description; or

 

        (e) in relation to the goods or services uses a trade mark or trade description in any sign, advertisement, invoice, catalogue, business letter, business paper, price list or other commercial document and goods are delivered or services are rendered to a person in pursuance of a request or order made by reference to the trade mark or trade description as so used.

 

    (2) A trade mark or mark or trade description shall be deemed to be applied to goods whether it is woven in, impressed on, or otherwise worked into, or annexed or affixed to, the goods or to any package or other thing.

 

102. Falsifying and falsely applying trade marks

 

    (1) A person shall be deemed to falsify a trade mark who, either,-

 

        (a) without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark makes that trade mark or a deceptively similar mark; or

 

        (b) falsifies any genuine trade mark, whether by alteration, addition, effacement or otherwise.

 

    (2) A person shall be deemed to falsely apply to goods or services a trademark who, without the assent of the proprietor of the trademark,-

 

        (a) applies such trade mark or a deceptively similar mark to goods or services or any package containing goods;

 

        (b) uses any package bearing a mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the trade mark of such proprietor, for the purpose of packing, filling or wrapping therein any goods other than the genuine goods of the proprietor of the trade mark.

 

    (3) Any trade mark falsified as mentioned in sub-section (1) or falsely applied as mentioned in sub-section (2), is in this Act referred to as a false trade mark.

 

    (4) In any prosecution for falsifying a trade mark or falsely applying a trade mark to goods or services, the burden of proving the assent of the proprietor shall lie on the accused.

 

103. Penalty for applying false trade marks, trade descriptions, etc.

 

Any person who-

 

    (a) falsifies any trade mark; or

 

    (b) falsely applies to goods or services any trade mark; or

 

    (c) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying, a trade mark; or

 

    (d) applies any false trade description to goods or services; or

 

    (e) applies to any goods to which an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are manufactured is required to be applied under section 139, a false indication of such country, place, name or address; or

 

    (f) tampers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin which has been applied to any goods to which it is required to be applied under section 139; or

 

    (g) causes any of things above-mentioned in this section to be done,

 

shall, unless he proves that he acted, without intent to defraud, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

 

PROVIDED that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

 

104. Penalty for selling goods or providing services to which false trade mark or false trade description is applied

 

Any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his possession for sale, goods or things, or provides or hires services, to which any false trade mark or false trade description is applied or which, being required under section 139 to have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or services provided, as the case may be, are without the indications so required, shall, unless he proves,-

 

    (a) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this section, he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description or that any offence had been committed in respect of the goods or services; or

 

    (b) that, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the person from whom he obtained such goods or things or services; or

 

    (c) that otherwise he had acted innocently,

 

be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

 

PROVIDED that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

 

105. Enhanced penalty on second or subsequent conviction

 

Whoever having already been convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

 

PROVIDED that the court may, for adequate and special reason to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees:

 

PROVIDED FURTHER that for the purposes of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made before the commencement of this Act.

 

106. Penalty for removing piece goods, etc., contrary to section 81

 

If any person removes or attempts to remove or causes or attempts to cause to be removed for sale from any premises referred to in section 81 or sells or exposes for sale or has in his possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture piece goods or cotton yarn or cotton thread which is not marked as required by that section, every such piece and every such bundle of yarn and all such thread and everything used for the packing thereof shall be forfeited to Government and such person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

 

107. Penalty for falsely representing a trade mark as registered

 

    (1) No person shall make any representation-

 

        (a) with respect to a mark, not being a registered trade mark, to the effect that it is a registered trade mark; or

 

        (b) with respect to a part of a registered trade mark, not being a part separately registered as a trade mark, to the effect that it is separately registered as a trade mark; or

 

        (c) to the effect that a registered trade mark is registered in respect of any goods services in respect of which it is not in fact registered; or

 

        (d) to the effect that registration of a trade mark gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any circumstances in which, having regard to limitation entered on the register, the registration does not in fact give that right.

 

    (2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

 

    (3) For the purposes of this section, the use in India in relation to a trade mark of the word "registered", or of any other expression, symbol or sign referring whether expressly or impliedly to registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except-

 

        (a) where that word or other expression, symbol or sign is used in direct association with other words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression, symbol or sign is delineated and indicating that the reference is to registration as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India being a country under the law of which the registration referred to is in fact in force; or

 

        (b) where that other expression, symbol or sign is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or

 

        (c) where that word is used in relation to a mark registered as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country or in relation to services for use in that country.

 

108. Penalty for improperly describing a place of business as connected with the Trade Marks Office

 

If any person uses on his place of business, or on any document issued by him, or otherwise, words which would reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected with, the Trade Marks Office, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

 

109. Penalty for falsification of entries in the register

 

If any person makes, or causes to be made, a false entry in the register, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register, or produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

 

110. No offence in certain cases

 

The provisions of sections 102, 103, 104 and 105 shall, in relation to a registered trade mark or proprietor of such mark, be subject to the rights created or recognised by this Act and no act or omission shall be deemed to be an offence under the aforesaid sections if,-

 

    (a) the alleged offence relates to a registered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under this Act; and

 

    (b) the alleged offence relates to a registered or an unregistered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under any other law for the time being in force.

 

111. Forfeiture of goods

 

    (1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 or is acquitted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 on proof that he acted without intent to defraud, or under section 104 on proof of the matters specified in clause (a), clause (b) or clause (c) of that section, the court convicting or acquitting him may direct the forfeiture to Government of all goods and things by means of, or in relation to, which the offence has been committed, or but for such proof as aforesaid would have been committed.

 

    (2) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction and an appeal lies against the conviction, an appeal shall lie against the forfeiture also.

 

    (3) When a forfeiture is directed on acquittal and the goods or things to which the direction relates are of value exceeding fifty rupees, an appeal against the forfeiture may be preferred, within thirty days from the date of the direction, to the court to which in appealable cases appeals lie from sentences of the court which directed the forfeiture.

 

    (4) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction, the court, before whom the person is convicted, may order any forfeited articles to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the court thinks fit.

 

112. Exemption of certain persons employed in ordinary course of business

 

Where a person accused of an offence under section 103 proves

 

    (a) that in the ordinary course of his business he is employed on behalf of other persons to apply trade marks or trade descriptions, or as the case may be, to make dies, blocks, machines, plates, or other instruments for making, or being used in making, trade marks; and

 

    (b) that in the case which is the subject of the charge he was so employed, and was not interested in the goods or other thing by way of profit or commission dependent on the sale of such goods or providing of services, as the case may be; and

 

    (c) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing the offence charged, he had, at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description; and

 

    (d) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the persons on whose behalf the trade mark or trade description was applied, he shall be acquitted.

 

113. Procedure where invalidity of registration is pleaded by the accused

 

    (1) Where the offence charged under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 is in relation to a registered trade mark and the accused pleads that the registration of the trade mark is invalid, the following procedure shall be followed:-

 

        (a) If the court is satisfied that such defence is prima facie tenable, it shall not proceed with the charge but shall adjourn the proceeding for three months from the date on which the plea of the accused is recorded to enable the accused to file an application before the Appellate Board under this Act, for the rectification of the register on the ground that the registration is invalid.

 

        (b) If the accused proves to the court that he has made such application within the time so limited or within such further time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the further proceedings in the prosecution shall stand stayed till the disposal of such application for rectification.

 

        (c) If within a period of three months or within such extended time as may be allowed by the court the accused fails to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register, the court shall proceed with the case as if the registration were valid.

 

    (2) Where before the institution of a complaint of an offence referred to in sub-section (1), any application for the rectification of the register concerning the trade mark in question on the ground of invalidity of the registration thereof has already been properly made to and is pending before the tribunal, the court shall stay the further proceedings in the prosecution pending the disposal of the application aforesaid and shall determine the charge against the accused in conformity with the result of the application for rectification in so far as the complainant relies upon the registration of his mark.

 

114. Offences by companies

 

    (1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company, the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

 

    PROVIDED that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

 

Explanation : For the purpose of this section-

 

    (a) "company" means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

 

    (b) "director", in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

 

115. Cognizance of certain offences and the powers of police officer for search and seizure

 

    (1) No court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 107 or section 108 or section 109 except on complaint in writing made by the Registrar or any officer authorised by him in writing:

 

    PROVIDED that in relation to clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 107, a court shall take cognizance of an offence on the basis of a certificate issued by the Registrar to the effect that a registered trade mark has been represented as registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact registered.

 

    (2) No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try an offence under this Act.

 

    (3) The offences under section l03 or section l04 or section l05 shall be cognizable.

 

    (4) Any police officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police or equivalent, may, if he is satisfied that any of the offences referred to in sub-section (3) has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, search and seize without warrant the goods, die, block, machine, plate, other instruments or things involved in committing the offence, wherever found, and all the articles of seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be:

 

    PROVIDED that the police officer, before making any search and seizure, shall obtain the opinion of the Registrar on facts involved in the offence relating to trade mark and shall abide by the opinion so obtained.

 

 

    (5) Any person having an interest in any article seized under sub-section (4), may, within fifteen days of such seizure, make an application to the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, for such article being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the applicant and the prosecution, shall make such order on the application as he may deem fit.

 

116. Evidence of origin of goods imported by sea

 

In the case of goods, brought into India by sea, evidence of the port of shipment shall, in a prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962, relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods, be prima facie evidence of the place or country in which the goods are made or produced.

 

117. Costs of defence or prosecution

 

In any prosecution under this Act, the court may order such costs to be paid by the accused to the complainant, or by the complainant to the accused, as the court deems reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the parties and the costs so awarded shall be recoverable as if they were a fine.

 

118. Limitation of prosecution

 

No prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962, relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks, relating to import of goods shall be commenced after expiration of three years next after the commission of the offence charged, or two years after the discovery thereof by the prosecutor, whichever expiration first-happens.

 

119. Information as to commission of offence

 

An officer of the Government whose duty it is to take part in the enforcement of the provisions of this Chapter shall not be compelled in any court to say whence he got any information as to the commission of any offence against this Act.

 

120. Punishment of abetment in India of acts done out of India

 

If any person, being within India, abets the commission, without India, of any act which, if committed in India, would, under this Act, be an offence, he may be tried for such abetment in any place in India in which he may be found, and be punished therefor with the punishment to which he would be liable if he had himself committed in that place the act which he abetted.

 

121. Instructions of Central Government as to permissible variation to be observed by criminal courts

 

The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, issue instructions for the limits of variation, as regards number, quantity, measure, guage or weight which are to be recognised by criminal courts as permissible in the case of any goods.

 

 

                                               CHAPTER XIII: MISCELLANEOUS

 

122. Protection of action taken in good faith

 

No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in. pursuance of this Act.

 

123. Certain persons to be public servants

 

Every person appointed under this Act and every Member of the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code.

 

124. Stay of proceedings where the validity of registration of the trade mark is questioned, etc.

 

    (1) Where in any suit for infringement of a trade mark-

 

        (a) the defendant pleads that registration of the plaintiff's trade mark is invalid ; or

 

        (b) the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff pleads the invalidity of registration of the defendant's trade mark, the court trying the suit (hereinafter referred to as the court), shall,-

 

            (i) if any proceedings for rectification of the register in relation to the plaintiff's or defendant's trade mark are pending before the Registrar or the Appellate Board, stay the suit pending the final disposal of such proceedings;

 

            (ii) if no such proceedings are pending and the court is satisfied that the plea regarding the invalidity of the registration of the plaintiffs or defendant's trade mark is prima facie tenable, raise an issue regarding the same and adjourn the case for a period of three months from the date of the framing of the issue in order to enable the party concerned to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register.

 

    (2) If the party concerned proves to the court that he has made any such application as is referred to in clause (b) (ii) of sub-section (1) within the time specified therein or within such extended time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the trial of the suit shall stand stayed until the final disposal of the rectification proceedings.

 

    (3) If no such application as aforesaid has been made within the time so specified or within such extended time as the court may allow, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the court shall proceed with the suit in regard to the other issues in the case.

 

    (4) The final order made in any rectification proceedings referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be binding upon the parties and the court shall dispose of the suit conformably to such order in so far as it relates to the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark.

 

    (5) The stay of suit for the infringement of a trade mark under this section shall not preclude the court from making any interlocutory order (including any order granting an injunction, directing account to be kept, appointing a receiver or attracting any property), during the period of the stay of the suit.

 

125. Application for rectification of register to be made to Appellate Board in certain cases

 

    (1) Where in a suit for infringement of a registered trade mark the validity of the registration of the plaintiff's trade mark is questioned by the defendant or where in any such suit the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff questions the validity of the registration of the defendant's trade mark, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be determined only on an application for the rectification of the register and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 47 or section 57, such application shall be made to the Appellate Board and not to the Registrar.

 

    (2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), where an application for rectification of the register is made to the Registrar under section 47 or section 57, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the application at any stage of the proceedings to the Appellate Board.

 

126. Implied warranty on sale of marked goods

 

Where a mark or a trade mark or trade description has been applied to the goods on sale or in the contract for sale of any goods or in relation to any service, the seller shall be deemed to warrant that the mark is a genuine mark and not falsely applied, or that the trade description is not a false trade description within the meaning of this Act unless the contrary is expressed in writing signed by or on behalf of the seller and delivered at the time of the sale of goods or providing of services on contract to and accepted by the buyer.

 

127. Powers of Registrar

 

In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar,-

 

    (a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purposes of receiving evidence, administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses;

 

    (b) the Registrar may, subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 157, make such orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such order shall be executable as a decree of a civil court:

 

    PROVIDED that the Registrar shall have no power to award costs to or against any party on an appeal to him against a refusal of the proprietor of a certification trade mark to certify goods or provision of services or to authorise the use of the mark;

 

    (c) the Registrar may, on an application made in the prescribed manner, review his own decision.

 

128. Exercise of discretionary power by Registrar

 

Subject to the provisions of section 131, the Registrar shall not exercise any discretionary or other power vested in him by this Act or the rules made thereunder adversely to a person applying for the exercise of that power without (if so required by that person within the prescribed time) giving to the person an opportunity of being heard.

 

129. Evidence before Registrar

 

In any proceeding under this Act before the Registrar, evidence shall be given by affidavit:

 

PROVIDED that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit.

 

130. Death of party to a proceeding

 

If a person who is a party to a proceeding under this Act (not being a proceeding before the Appellate Board or a court) dies pending the proceeding, the Registrar may, on request, and on proof to his satisfaction of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the proceeding his successor in interest in his place, or, if the Registrar is of opinion that the interest of the deceased person is sufficiently represented by the surviving parties, permit the proceeding to continue without the substitution of his successor in interest.

 

131. Extension of time

 

    (1) If the Registrar is satisfied, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and accompanied by the prescribed fee, that there is sufficient cause for extending the time for doing any act (not being a time expressly provided in this Act), whether the time so specified has expired or not, he may, subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time and inform the parties accordingly.

 

    (2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to require the Registrar to hear the parties before disposing of an application for extension of time, and no appeal shall lie from any order of the Registrar under this section.

 

132. Abandonment

 

Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade marks in force prior to the commencement of this Act, the Registrar may, by notice require the applicant to remedy the default within a time specified and after giving him, if so, desired, an opportunity of being heard, treat the application as abandoned, unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

 

133. Preliminary advice by the Registrar as to distinctiveness

 

    (1) The Registrar may, on application made to him in the prescribed manner by any person who proposes to apply for the registration of a trade mark, give advice as to whether the trade mark appears to him prima facie to be distinctive.

 

    (2) If, on an application for the registration of a trade mark as to which the Registrar has given      advice as aforesaid in the affirmative made within three months after the advice was given, the Registrar, after further investigation or consideration, gives notice, to the applicant of objection on the ground that the trade mark is not distinctive, the applicant shall be entitled, on giving notice of withdrawal of the application within the prescribed period, to have repaid to him any fee paid on the filing of the application.

 

134. Suit for infringement, etc., to be instituted before District Court

 

    (1) No suit-

 

        (a) for the infringement of a registered trade mark; or

 

        (b) relating to any right in a registered trade mark; or

 

        (c) for passing off arising out of the use by the defendant of any trade mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the plaintiffs trade mark, whether registered or unregistered,

 

shall be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court having jurisdiction to try the suit.

 

    (2) For the purpose of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1), a "District Court having jurisdiction" shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 or any other law for the time being in force, include a District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction, at the time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or proceeding, or, where there are more than one such persons any of them, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

 

    Explanation : For the purposes of sub-section (2), "person" includes the registered proprietor and the registered user.

 

135. Relief in suits for infringement or for passing off

 

    (1) The relief which a court may grant in any suit for infringement or for passing off referred to in section 134 includes injunction (subject to such terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and at the option of the plaintiff, either damages or an account of profits, together with or without any order for the delivery-up of the infringement labels and marks for destruction or erasure.

 

    (2) The order of injunction under sub-section (1) may include an ex parte injunction or any interlocutory order for any of the following matters, namely:-

 

        (a) for discovery of documents;

 

        (b) preserving of infringing goods, documents or other evidence which are related to the subject-matter of the suit;

 

        (c) restraining the defendant from disposing of or dealing with his assets in a manner which may adversely affect plaintiff's ability to recover damages, costs or other pecuniary remedies which may be finally awarded to the plaintiff.

 

    (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the court shall  not grant relief by way of damages (other than nominal damages) or on account of profits in any case-

 

        (a) where in a suit for infringement of a trade mark, the infringement complained of is in relation to a certification trade mark or collective mark; or

 

        (b) where in a suit for infringement the defendant satisfies the court-

 

            (i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit, he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was on the register or that the plaintiff was a registered user using by way of permitted use; and

 

            (ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff's right in the trade mark, he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which it was registered; or

 

        (c) where in a suit for passing off, the defendant satisfies the court-

 

            (i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was in use; and

 

            (ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff's trade mark he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark complained of.

 

136. Registered user to be impleaded in certain proceedings

 

    (1) In every proceeding under Chapter VII or under section 91, every registered user of a trade mark using by way of permitted use, who is not himself an applicant in respect of any proceeding under that Chapter or section, shall be made a party to the proceeding.

 

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered user so made a party to the proceeding shall not be liable for any costs unless. he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceeding.

 

137. Evidence of entries in register, etc., and things done by the Registrar

 

    (1) A copy of any entry in the register or of any document referred to in sub-section (1) of section 148 purporting to be certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry shall be admitted in evidence in all courts and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

 

    (2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that he is authorised by this Act or the rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or things having been done or not done.

 

138. Registrar and other officers not compellable to produce register, etc.

 

The Registrar or any officer of the Trade Marks Registry shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special cause.

 

139. Power to require goods to show indication of origin

 

    (1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, require that goods of any class specified in the notification which are made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, or, which are made or produced within the limits of India, shall, from such date as may be appointed by the notification not being less than three months from its issue, have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced, or of the name and address of the manufacturer or the person for whom the goods were manufactured.

 

    (2) The notification may specify the manner in which such indication shall be applied that is to say, whether to goods themselves or in any other manner, and the times or occasions on which the presence of the indication shall be necessary, that is to say, whether on importation only, or also at the time of sale, whether by wholesale or retail or both.

 

    (3) No notification under this section shall be issued, unless application is made for its issue by persons or associations substantially representing the interests of dealers in, or manufacturers, producers, or users of, the goods concerned, or unless the Central Government is otherwise convinced that it is necessary in the public interest to issue the notification, with or without such inquiry, as the Central Government may consider necessary.

 

    (4) The provisions of section 23 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 shall apply to the issue of a notification under this section as they apply to the making of a rule or bye-law the making of which is subject to the condition of previous publication.

 

    (5) A notification under this section shall not apply to goods made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, if in respect of those goods, the Commissioner of Customs is satisfied at the time of importation that they are intended for exportation whether after transhipment in or transit through India or otherwise.

 

140. Power to require information of imported goods bearing false trade marks

 

    (1) The proprietor or a licensee of a registered trade mark may give notice in writing to the Collector of Customs to prohibit the importation of any goods if the import of the said goods constitute infringement under clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 29.

 

    (2) Where goods, which are prohibited to be imported into India by notification of the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962, for the protection of trade marks, and are liable to confiscation on importation under that Act, are imported into India, the Commissioner of Customs if, upon representation made to him, he has reason to believe that the trade mark complained of is used as a false trade mark, may require the importer of the goods, or his agent, to produce any documents in his possession relating to the goods and to furnish information as to the name and address of the person by whom the goods were consigned to India and the name and address of the person to whom the goods were sent in India.

 

    (3) The importer or his agent shall, within fourteen days, comply with the requirement as aforesaid, and if he fails to do so, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

 

    (4) Any information obtained from the importer of the goods or his agent under this section may be communicated by the Commissioner of Customs to the registered proprietor or registered user of the trade mark which is alleged to have been used as a false trade mark.

 

141. Certificate of validity

 

If in any legal proceeding for rectification of the register before the Appellate Board a decision is on contest given in favour of the registered proprietor of the trade mark on the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark, the Appellate Board may grant a certificate to that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then, in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said validity comes into question the said proprietor on obtaining a final order or judgement in his favour affirming validity of the registration of the trade mark shall, unless the said final order or judgement for sufficient reason directs otherwise, be entitled to his full cost charges and expenses as between legal practitioner and client.

 

142. Groundless threats of legal proceedings

 

    (1) Where a person, by means of circulars, advertisements or otherwise, threatens a person with an action or proceeding for infringement of a trade mark which is registered, or alleged by the first-mentioned person to be registered, or with some other like proceeding, a person aggrieved may, whether the person making the threats is or is not the registered proprietor or the registered user of the trade mark, bring a suit against the first-mentioned person and may obtain a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable, and an injunction against the continuance of the threats and may recover such damages (if any) as he has sustained, unless the first-mentioned person satisfies the court that the trade mark is registered and that the acts in respect of which the proceedings were threatened, constitute, or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of the trade mark.

 

    (2) The last preceding sub-section does not apply if the registered proprietor of the trade mark, or a registered user acting in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 52 with due diligence commences and prosecutes an action against the person threatened for infringement of the trade mark.

 

    (3) Nothing in this section shall render a legal practitioner or a registered trade marks agent liable to an action under this section in respect of an act done by him in his professional capacity on behalf of a client.

 

    (4) A suit under sub-section (1) shall not be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court.

 

143. Address for service

 

An address for service stated in an application or notice of opposition shall for the purposes of the application or notice of opposition be deemed to be the address of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be, and all documents in relation to the application or notice of opposition may be served by leaving them at or sending them by post to the address for service of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be.

 

144. Trade usages, etc., to be taken into consideration

 

In any proceeding relating to a trade mark, the tribunal shall admit evidence of the usages of the trade concerned and of any relevant trade mark or trade name or get up legitimately used by other persons.

 

145. Agents

 

Where, by or under this Act, any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required to be done before the Registrar by any person, the act may, subject to the rules made in this behalf, be done instead of by that person himself, by a person duly authorised in the prescribed manner, who is-

 

    (a) a legal practitioner, or

 

    (b) a person registered in the prescribed manner as a trade marks agent, or

 

    (c) a person in the sole and regular employment of the principal.

 

146. Marks registered by an agent or representative without authority

 

If an agent or a representative of the proprietor of a registered trade mark, without authority uses or attempts to register or registers the mark in his own name, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for or secure its cancellation or rectification of the register so as to bring him as the registered proprietor of the said mark by assignment in his favour:

 

PROVIDED that such action shall be taken within three years of the registered proprietor of the trade mark becoming aware of the conduct of the agent or representative.

 

147. Indexes

 

There shall be kept under the direction and supervision of the Registrar-

 

    (a) an index of registered trade marks;

 

    (b) an index of trade marks in respect of which applications for registration are pending;

 

    (c) an index of the names of the proprietors of registered trade marks; and

 

    (d) an index of the names of registered users.

 

148. Documents open to public inspection

 

    (1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (4) of section 49,-

 

        (a) the register and any document upon which any entry in the register is based;

 

        (b) every notice of opposition to the registration of a trade mark application for rectification before the Registrar, counter-statement thereto, and any affidavit or document filed by the parties in any proceedings before the Registrar;

 

        (c) all regulations deposited under section 63 or section 74, and all applications under section 66 or section 77 for varying such regulations;

 

        (d) the indexes mentioned in section 147; and

 

        (e) such other documents as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, shall, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, be open to public inspection at the Trade Marks Registry:

 

    PROVIDED that when such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer, the inspection of   such register under this section shall be made by inspecting the computer print-out of the relevant entry in the register so maintained on computer..

 

    (2) Any person may, on an application to the Registrar and on payment of such fees as may be prescribed, obtain a certified copy of any entry in the register or any document referred to in sub-section (1).

 

149. Reports of Registrar to be placed before Parliament

 

The Central Government shall cause to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution by or under the Registrar of this Act.

 

150. Fees and surcharge

 

    (1) There shall be paid in respect of applications and registration and other matters under this Act such fees and surcharge as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

 

    (2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Registrar, the Registrar shall not do that act until the fees has been paid.

 

    (3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the Trade Marks Registry, the document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the registry until the fee has been paid.

 

151. Savings in respect of certain matters in Chapter XII

 

Nothing in Chapter XII shall-

 

    (a) exempt any person from any suit or other proceeding which might, but for anything in that Chapter, be brought against him; or

 

    (b) entitle any person to refuse to make a complete discovery, or to answer any question or interrogatory in any suit or other proceeding, but such discovery or answer shall not be admissible in evidence against such person in any such prosecution for an offence under that Chapter or against clause (h) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 of that Act and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 thereof for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods, or

 

    (c) be construed so as to render liable to any prosecution or punishment any servant of a master resident in India who in good faith acts in obedience to the instructions of such master, and, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, has given full information as to his master and as to the instructions which he has received from his master.

 

152. Declaration as to ownership of trade mark not registrable under the Registration Act, 1908

 

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Registration Act, 1908, no document declaring or purporting to declare the ownership or title of a person to a trade mark other than a registered trade mark shall be registered under that Act.

 

153. Government to be bound

 

The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government.

 

154. Special provisions relating to applications for registration from citizens of convention countries

 

    (1) With a view to the fulfilment of a treaty, convention or arrangement with any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation outside India which affords to citizens of India similar privileges as granted to its own citizens, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such country or group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation to be a convention country or group of countries or union of countries, or Inter-Governmental Organisations, as the case may be, for the purposes of this Act.

 

    (2) Where a person has made an application for the registration of a trade mark in a convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation and that person, or his legal representative or assignee, makes an application for the registration of the trade mark in India within six months after the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisations, the trade mark shall, if registered under this Act, be registered as of the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation and that date shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act to be the date of registration.

 

    (3) Where applications have been made for the registration of a trade mark in two or more convention countries or country which are members of group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation, the period of six months referred to in the last preceding sub-section shall be reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of those applications was made.

 

    (4) Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor of a trade to recover damages for infringement which took place prior to the date of application for registration under this Act.

 

155. Provision as to reciprocity

 

Where any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation specified by the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in respect of the registration and protection of trade marks as it accords to its own nationals, no national of such country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation, as the case may be, shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other person,-

 

    (a) to apply for the registration of, or be registered as the proprietor of, a trade mark;

 

    (b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a registered trade mark; or

 

    (c) to apply for registration or be registered as a registered user of a trade mark under section 49.

 

156. Power of Central Government to remove difficulties

 

    (1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be necessary for removing the difficulty:

 

    PROVIDED that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the commencement of this Act.

 

    (2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

 

157. Power to make rules

 

    (1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to the condition of previous publication, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

 

    (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

 

        (i) the matters to be included in the Register of Trade Marks under sub-section (1) of section 6, and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of records on computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form under sub-section (2) of that section;

 

        (ii) the manner of publication of alphabetical index of classification of goods and services under sub-section (1) of section 8;

 

        (iii) the manner in which the Registrar may notify a word as an international non-proprietary name under section 13;

 

        (iv) the manner of making an application for dissolution of an association under sub-section (5) of section 16;

 

        (v) the manner of making an application for registration of a trade mark under sub-section (1) of section 18;

 

        (vi) the manner of advertising of an application for registration under sub-section (1), and the manner of notifying corrections or amendments under sub-section (2), of section 20;

 

        (vii) the manner of making an application and the fee payable for such application. giving notice under sub-section (1) and sending counter-statements under sub-section (2) and submission of evidence and the time therefor under sub-section (4) of section 21;

 

        (viii) the form of certificate of registration under sub-section (2), and the manner of giving notice to the applicant under sub-section (3) of section 23;

 

        (ix) the forms of application for renewal and restoration the time within which such application is to be made and fee and surcharge if any payable with each application, under section 25 and the time within which the Registrar shall send a notice and the manner of such notice under sub-section (3) of that section;

 

        (x) the manner of submitting statement of cases under sub-section (2) of section 40;

 

        (xi) the manner of making an application by the proprietor of a trade mark under section 41;

 

        (xii) the manner of making an application for assignment or transmission of a certification trade mark under section 43;

 

        (xiii) the manner of making an application to the Registrar to register title under sub-section (1) of section 45;

 

        (xiv) the manner in which and the period within which an application is to be made under sub-section (4) of section 46;

 

        (xv) the manner of marking an application under sub-section (2) of section 47;

 

        (xvi) the manner of making an application, documents and other evidence to accompany such application under sub-section (1) and the manner in which notice is to be issued under sub-section (3) of section 49;

 

        (xvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of issuing a notice under sub-section (2) and the procedure for cancelling a registration under sub-section (3) of section 50;

 

        (xviii) the manner of making applications under sub-sections (1) and (2), the manner of giving notice under sub-section (4) and the manner of service of notice of rectification under sub-section (5) of section 57;

 

        (xix) the manner of making an application under section 58;

 

        (xx) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of advertising an application, time and manner of notice by which application may be opposed under sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 59;

 

        (xxi) the manner of advertisement under sub-section (2) of section 60;

 

        (xxii) the other matters to be specified in the regulations under sub-section (2) of section 63;

 

        (xxiii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) of section 71;

 

        (xxiv) the manner of advertising an application under section 73;

 

        (xxv) the manner of making an application under section 77;

 

        (xxvi) the classes of goods under section 79;

 

        (xxvii) the conditions and restrictions under sub-section (2) of section 80;

 

        (xxviii) determination of character of textile goods by sampling under section 82;

 

        (xxix) the salaries and allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members under sub-section (1) of section 88;

 

        (xxx) the procedure for investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members under sub-section (3) of section 89;

 

        (xxxi) the salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board under sub-section (2), and the manner in which the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under sub-section (3) of section 90;

 

        (xxxii) the form of making an appeal, the manner of verification and the fee payable under sub-section (3) of section 91;

 

        (xxxiii) the form in which and the particulars to be included in the application to the Appellate Board under sub-section (1) of section 97;

 

        (xxxiv) the manner of making an application for review under clause (c) of section 127;

 

        (xxxv) the time within which an application is to be made to the Registrar for exercising his discretionary power under section 128;

 

        (xxxvi) the manner of making an application and the fee payable therefore under sub-section (1) of section 131;

 

        (xxxvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) and the period for withdrawal of such application under sub-section (2) of section 133;

 

        (xxxviii) the manner of authorising any person to act and the manner of registration as a trade mark agent under section 145;

 

        (xxxix) the conditions for inspection of documents under sub-section (1) and the fee payable for obtaining a certified copy of any entry in the register under sub-section (2) of section 148;

 

        (xl) the fees and surcharge payable for making applications and registration and other matters under section 150;

 

        (xli) any other matter which is required to be or may be prescribed.

 

    (3) The power to make rules conferred by this section shall include the power to give retrospective effect in respect of the matters referred to in clause (xxix) and (xxxi) of sub-section (2) from a date not earlier than the date of commencement of this Act, but no retrospective effect shall be given to any such rule so as to prejudicially affect the interests of any person to whom sub-rule may be applicable.

 

    (4) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

 

158. Amendments

 

The enactment specified in the Schedule shall be amended in the manner specified therein.

 

159. Repeal and saving

 

    (1) The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 is hereby repealed.

 

 

    (2) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in the General Clauses Act, 1897, with respect to repeals, any notification, rule, order, requirement, registration, certificate, notice, decision, determination, direction, approval. authorisation, consent, application, request or thing made, issued, given or done under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall, if in force at the commencement of this Act, continue to be in force and have effect as if made, issued, given or done under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

 

    (3) The provisions of this Act shall apply to any application for registration of a trade mark pending at the commencement of this Act and to any proceedings consequent thereon and to any registration granted in pursuance thereof.

 

    (4) Subject to the provisions of section 100 and notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act, any legal proceeding pending in any court at the commencement of this Act may be continued in that court as if this Act had not been passed.

 

    (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, where a particular use of a registered trade mark is not an infringement of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act, then, the continued use of that mark shall not be an infringement under this Act.

 

    (6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the date of expiration of registration of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act shall be the date immediately after the period of seven years for which it was registered or renewed:

 

    PROVIDED that the registration of a defensive trade mark referred to in section 47 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall cease to have effect on the date immediately after the expiry of five years of such commencement or after the expiry of the period for which it was registered or renewed, whichever is earlier.

 

 

                                    The Trade Marks Rules, 2017

 

 

                                           PART I

                                         CHAPTER I

                                        PRELIMINARY

 

1. Short title and commencement. - (1) These rules may be called the Trade Marks Rules, 2017.


(2) They shall come into force on date of publication in the official Gazette.


2. Definitions. - (1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires, -


(a) "Act" means the Trade Marks Act, 1999 (47 of 1999);


(b) "agent" means a person authorised to act as such under section 145 of the Act;


(c) "application for registration of a trademark" includes the trademark for goods or services contained in it;


(d) "appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry" means the relevant office of the Trade Marks Registry as specified in rule 4;


(e) "class fee" means the fee prescribed for the filing of an application for registration of a trademark in a particular class;


(f) "convention country" means a country or group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental organisations of countries declared as such under sub-section (1) of section 154;


(g) "convention application" means an application for registration of a trademark made by virtue of section 154;


(h) "divisional application" means-


(i) an application containing a request for the division of goods or services in a class for the registration of a trade mark; or


(ii) a divided application made by the division of a single application for the registration of a trade mark for separate classes of goods or services;


(i) "divisional fee" means fee prescribed against entry no. 14 in the First Schedule;


(j) "Form" means a form set forth in either the Second or the Third Schedule;

 

(k) "graphical representation" means the representation of a trademark for goods or services represented or capable of being represented in paper form and includes representation in digitised form;


(l) "Journal" means the trademarks Journal made available at official website of Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks;


(m) "notified date" means the date on which these rules come into force;


(n) "old law" means the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 and rules made there under existing immediately before the commencement of the Act;


(o) "opposition" means an opposition to the registration of a trademark or a collective trademark or a certification trademark, as the case may be and includes an opposition to grant of protection to an international registration designating India and opposition to alteration of registered trademark;


(p) "principal place of business in India" means the relevant place in India as specified in rule 3;


(q) "publish" means published in the trademarks Journal made available on the official website of Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks;


(r) "registered trademark agent" means a trademark agent whose name is actually on the register of trademarks agents maintained under rule 142;


(s) "renewal" means and includes renewal of registration of a trademark, certification trademark or collective trademark, as the case may be;


(t) "schedule" means a Schedule to the rules;


(u) "section" means a section of the Act;


(v) Small Enterprise means:


(i) in case of an enterprise engaged in the manufacture or production of goods, an enterprise where the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed the limit specified for a medium enterprise under clause (a) of subsection
(1) of section 7 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 (27 of 2006); and


(ii) In case of an enterprise engaged in providing or rendering of services, an enterprise where the investment in equipment is not more than the limit specified for a medium enterprise under clause (b) of sub-section (1)
of section 7 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006.


Explanation: "enterprise" means an industrial undertakings or a business concern or any other establishment, by whatever name called, engaged in the manufacture or production of goods in any manner pertain to any industry specified in the first schedule to the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951) or engages in providing or rendering or any services or services in such an industry.


(iii) In case of a foreign enterprise, an enterprise which fulfills the requirements as mentioned in clauses (i) and (ii) above.


Explanation: In calculating the investment in the plant and machinery, reference rates of foreign currency of Reserve Bank of India shall prevail.


(w) "specification" means the designation of goods or services in respect of which a trademark or a registered user of a trademark is registered or proposed to be registered;


(x) "Startup" means


(i) an entity in India recognised as a startup by the competent authority under Startup India initiative,


(ii) In case of a foreign entity, an entity fulfilling the criteria for turnover and period of incorporation /registration as per Startup India Initiative and submitting declaration to that effect.


Explanation: In calculating the turnover, reference rates of foreign currency of Reserve Bank of India shall prevail.


(y) All other words and expressions used but not defined in these rules but defined in the Act or in the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (48 of 1999), the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of
1957) shall have the meanings assigned to them in those Acts.


(2) In these rules, except as otherwise indicated, a reference to a section is a reference to that section in the Act, a reference to a rule is a reference to that rule in these rules, a reference to a Schedule is a reference to that Schedule to
these rules and a reference to a Form is a reference to that Form contained in the Second Schedule or the Third Schedule, as the case may be, to these rules.


3. Principal place of business in India.- "Principal place of business in India" means-


(i) where a person carries on business in the goods or services concerned in a trademark -


(a) if the business is carried on in India at only one place, that place;


(b) if the business is carried on in India at more places than one, the place mentioned by him as the principal place of business in India;


(ii) where a person is not carrying on a business in the goods or services concerned in a trademark-


(a) if he is carrying on any other business in India at only one place, that place;


(b) if he is carrying on any other business in India at more places than one, the place mentioned by him as the principal place of business in India; and


(iii) where a person does not carry on any business in India but has a place of residence in India, then such place of residence in India.


4. Appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry.- The appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry for the purposes of making an application for registration of a trademark under section 18 or for giving notice of opposition under section 21 or for making an application for removal of a trademark under section 47 or cancelling or varying the registration of a trademark under section 57 or for any other proceedings under the Act and the rules shall be -


A. in relation to a trademark on the Register of Trade Marks at the notified date, the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits-


(i) the principal place of business in India of the registered proprietor of the trademark as entered in the register at such date is situate;


(ii) where there is no entry in the register as to the principal place of business in India of the registered proprietor, the place mentioned in the address for service in India as entered in the register at such date is situate;


(iii) in the case of jointly registered proprietors, the principal place of business in India of the proprietor whose name is entered first in the register as having such place of business in India at such date is situate;


(iv) where none of the jointly registered proprietors is shown in the register as having a principal place of business in India, the place mentioned in the address for service in India of the joint proprietors as entered in the register
at such date, is situate;


(v) if no principal place of business in India of the registered proprietor of the trademark or in the case of joint registration, of any of the joint proprietors of the trademark, is entered in the register, and the register does not contain any address for service in India, the place of the office of the Trade Marks Registry where the application for registration of the trademark was made, is situate, and


B. in relation to a trademark for which an application for registration is pending at the notified date or is made on or after the notified date, the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits-


(i) the principal place of business in India of the applicant as disclosed in the application or, in the case of joint applicants, the principal place of business in India of the applicant whose name is first mentioned in the application, as having such place of business is situate;


(ii) where neither the applicant nor any of the joint applicants, as the case may be, has a principal place of business in India, the place mentioned in the address for service in India as specified in the application is situate.


5. Jurisdiction of appropriate office not altered by change in the principal place of business or address for service.- No change in the principal place of business in India or in the address for service in India, as the case may
be,-


A. of a registered proprietor or of any of the jointly registered proprietors in relation to any trademark on the register at the notified date, made or effected subsequent to that date; or


B. of an applicant for registration or of any of the joint applicants for registration in relation to any trademark for which an application for registration is either pending at the notified date or is made on or after that date, made or effected subsequent to that date or to the date of filing of such application, as the case may be,
shall affect the jurisdiction of the appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry.


6. Entry of the appropriate office in the Register. - In respect of every trademark on the register at the notified date or registered thereafter the Registrar shall cause to be entered in the register, the appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry and the Registrar may, at any time, correct any error in the entry so made.


7. Transfer of pending applications and proceedings to appropriate offices of the Trade Marks Registry. - Every application and proceeding pending before the Registrar at the notified date in relation to a trademark shall be
deemed to have been transferred to the appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry.


8. Leaving of documents, etc.- All applications, notices, statements or other documents or any fees authorised or required by the Act or the rules to be made, served, left or sent or paid at or to the Trade Marks Registry in relation to
a trademark on the Register of trademarks on the notified date or for which an application for registration is pending on, or is made on or after the notified date, shall be made, served, left or sent or paid to the appropriate office of the Trade
Marks Registry:


Provided that the Registrar may, by notification in the journal, permit the filing of certain forms or documents, other than the application for the registration of a trademark in any other office of the Trade Marks Registry.


9. Issue of notices etc.-Any notice or communication relating to an application, matter or proceeding under the Act or the rules may be issued by the Head of Office or any other officer authorised by the Registrar.


10. Fees. - (1) The fees to be paid in respect of applications, oppositions, registration, renewal, expedited processing of application or any other matters under the Act and the rules shall be those as specified in the First
Schedule.


(2) Where in respect of any matter, a fee is required to be paid under the rules, the form or the application or the request of the petition thereof, it shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.


(3) Fees may be paid electronically or in cash or sent by money order addressed to the Registrar or by a bank draft issued or by a banker's cheque drawn on a scheduled bank at the place where the appropriate office of the Trade
Marks Registry is situated and if sent through post shall be deemed to have been paid at the time when the money order or the properly addressed bank draft or banker's cheque is received in the office.


(4) Bank drafts and banker's cheque shall be crossed and made payable to the Registrar at the appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry and they shall be drawn on a scheduled bank at the place where the appropriate office
of the Trade Marks Registry is situate.


(5) Where a fee is payable in respect of filing of a document and where the document is filed without fee or with insufficient fee, such document shall be deemed not to have been filed for the purposes of any proceedings under
these rules.


11. Forms. - (1) The Forms set forth in the Second and the Third Schedules shall be used in all cases to which they are applicable and may be modified as directed by the Registrar to meet other cases.


(2) Any Form, when filed at the Trade Marks Registry, shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.


(3) A requirement under this rule to use a Form as set forth in the Schedule shall be satisfied by the use of a replica of that Form containing all the information required by the Form as set forth and complies with any direction as to
the use of such a Form.


(4) The Registrar may after informing the public in the Journal or through public notice on official website specify such Forms as are required to be submitted in electronic mode. Thereafter, such Forms shall be completed in such
manner as may be laid down by the Registrar so as to permit an automated input of the content into a computer by character recognition or scanning.


12. Size, etc of documents.- (1) Subject to any other directions that may be given by the Registrar, all applications, notices, statements, or other documents except trademarks, authorised or required by the Act or the rules made thereunder, served, left or sent, at or to the Trade Marks Registry or with or to the Registrar shall be typewritten and printed in Hindi or in English in legible characters with deep permanent ink upon strong paper of A-4 or legal size on one side only, and shall have on the left hand side thereof a margin of not less than four centimeters.


(2) Duplicate documents including copies of trademark shall be filed at the Trade Marks Registry if at any time required by the Registrar.


(3) The Registrar may after informing the public in the Journal alter the size, of all such applications, notices, statements or other document and forms required under the rules to make it compatible in electronic mode.



(4) The Registrar may, after informing the public in the Journal, permit the filing of applications, statements, notices or other documents by electronic mode subject to such guidelines and instructions as he may specify in the Journal.


13. Signing of documents. - (1) Any document required to be signed under the Act and the Rules shall be signed by the applicant or opponent or by a person duly authorised for the purpose.


(2) Signatures to any documents shall be accompanied by the name of the signatory in Hindi or in capital letters, in English.


(3) In case of online filing of the document, the expression 'Signing' includes digital signature.


14. Service of documents. - (1) All applications, notices, statements, papers having representations affixed thereto, or other documents authorised or required by the Act or the rules made thereunder, served, left or sent, at or to
the Trade Marks Registry or with or to the Registrar or any other person may be delivered by hand or sent through the post by a prepaid letter or may be submitted electronically in the manner as laid down by the Registrar.


(2) An application or any document so sent shall be deemed to have been made, served, left or sent at the time when the letter containing the same would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.


(3) In proving such sending, it shall be sufficient to prove that the letter was properly addressed and put into the post.


(4) After the filing of an application in the Trade Marks Registry, any person while making any correspondence relating thereto shall furnish the following particulars, namely:-


(a) the application number or numbers, if any;


(b) the date and place of filing;


(c) the appropriate class or classes, as the case may be, in relation to which the application is filed;


(d) an address for communication; and


(e) the concerned agent's code, if any, and the concerned Proprietor's code, if allotted.


(5) The Registrar after informing the public in the Journal may accept applications, notices, statements, or other documents online through the gateway provided for this purpose, or in case of documents not requiring the payment of a fee, through e-mail to a designated email address for the purpose.


15. Particulars of address etc. of applicants and other persons.- (1) Names and addresses of the applicants and other persons shall be given in full, together with their nationality, and such other particulars as may be necessary for identification.


(2) In the case of a partnership firm, the full name and nationality of every partner thereof shall be given.


(3) In the case of an application from a convention country and persons having no principal place of business in India, their addresses in their home country shall be given in addition to their address for service in India.


(4) In the case of a body corporate or firm, the country of incorporation or the nature of registration, if any, as the case may be, shall be given.


16. Statement of principal place of business in India in the application. - (1) Every application for registration of a trademark shall state the principal place of business in India, if any, of the applicant or in the case of joint applicants,
of such of the joint applicants, a principal place of business in India and the same shall be the address of the applicant.


(2) Subject to the provisions of rules 17, 18 and 20, any written communication addressed to an applicant or in the case of joint applicants to a joint applicant, in connection with the registration of a trademark, at the address of his
principal place of business in India given by him in the application shall be deemed to be properly addressed.


17. Address for service.- (1) Every applicant or opponent or any person concerned in any proceeding under the Act or rules shall furnish to the Registrar an address for service in India comprising of a postal address in India and a valid e-mail address and such address shall be treated as the address for service of such applicant or opponent or person:


Provided that a trademark agent shall also be required to furnish a mobile number registered in India.


(2) Any written communication addressed to a person as aforesaid at an address for service in India given by him shall be deemed to be properly addressed.



(3) Unless an address for service in India as required in sub-rule (1) is given, the Registrar shall be under no obligation to send any notice that may be required by the Act or the rules and no subsequent order or decision in the proceedings shall be called in question on the ground of any lack or non-service of notice.


18. Service of Documents by the Registrar. - (1) All communications and documents in relation to application or opposition matter or registered trademark may be served by the Registrar by leaving them at, or sending them by post to
the address for service of the party concerned or by email communication.


(2) Any communication or document so sent shall be deemed to have been served, at the time when the letter containing the same would be delivered in the ordinary course of post or at the time of sending the email.


(3) To prove such service, it shall be sufficient to prove that the letter was properly addressed and put into the post or the email communication was sent to the email id provided by the party concerned.


19. Agency.- (1) The authorisation of an agent for the purpose of section 145 shall be executed in Form TM-M.


(2) In the case of such authorisation, service upon the agent of any document relating to the proceeding or matter shall be deemed to be service upon the person so authorising him; all communications directed to be made to such
person in respect of the proceeding or matter may be addressed to such agent, and all appearances before Registrar relating thereto may be made by or through such agent.


(3) In any particular case, the Registrar may require the personal signature or presence of an applicant, opponent, proprietor, registered user or other person.


(4) In case of withdrawal by the agent from the proceedings or from doing any act for which he has been authorised, in respect of an application or opposition wherein no principle place of business in India is mentioned, the applicant or opponent shall, within a period of two months from the date of such withdrawal, provide an address for service in India. If he fails to provide address for service in India within such period, he shall be deemed to have abandoned the application or opposition, as the case may be.


(5) In case of revocation of authorisation by the applicant or opponent in respect of an application or opposition wherein no principle place of business in India is mentioned, the applicant or opponent, as the case may be, shall provide the address for service in India within a period of two months from such revocation. If he fails to provide address for service in India within such period, he shall be deemed to have abandoned the application or opposition, as
the case may be.


20. Classification of goods and service- (1) Classification of goods and service for the purpose of registration of trademark, the goods and services shall be classified as per current edition of "the International Classification of goods
and services (NICE classification)" published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).


(2) The Registrar shall publish a class wise and an alphabetical index of such goods and services, including goods and services of Indian origin.


21. Preliminary advice by Registrar as to distinctiveness. - An application for preliminary advice by the Registrar under sub-section (1) of Section 133 shall be made in Form TM-M in respect of any goods or services comprised as published by the Registrar under sub-rule (2) of rule 20, along with the fees specified in entry number 14 of the First Schedule and accompanied by one representation of the trademark.


22. Request to Registrar for Search.- (1) Any person may request the Registrar, in Form TM-C to cause a search to be made and for issue of certificate under sub-section (1) of section 45 of Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957) to the
effect that no trademark identical with or deceptively similar to such artistic work, as sought to be registered as copyright under the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957) has been registered as a trademark under the Trade Marks Act, 1999 (47 of
1999) in the name of, or that no application has been made under that Act for such re-registration by any person other than the applicant. The certificate shall ordinarily be issued within thirty working days of the date of request:


Provided, the Registrar may call for a statement of requirements from the applicant and if the requirements are not complied with within two months from the date of such calling of the statement, the request on Form TM-C shall be
treated as abandoned.


(2) The Registrar may cancel the certificate issued under sub-rule (1) after giving notice and stating the grounds on which the Registrar proposes to cancel the certificate and after providing reasonable opportunity of being
heard.


(3) Subject to proviso of sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2), the Registrar shall ordinarily within seven working days issue an expedited search certificate under sub-section (1) of section 45 of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957) on a request received in Form TM-C on payment of fee specified in First Schedule.



(4) Before abandoning the request in Form TM-C, as the case may be, for non-compliance of the statement of
requirements when called for, the Registrar shall provide an opportunity of being heard in the matter.

 

                                                CHAPTER II

                     PROCEDURE FOR REGISTRATION OF TRADEMARKS APPLICATION

 

23. Form and signing of application.- (1) An application for the registration of a trademark in respect of specification of goods or services shall be made in TM-A and shall be signed by the applicant or his agent.


(2) An application for the registration of a trademark, for goods or services shall-


(a) explain with sufficient precision, a description by words, of the trademark, if necessary, to determine the right of the applicant;


(b) be able to depict the graphical representation of the trademark;


(c) be considered as a three dimensional trademark only if the application contains a statement to that effect;


(d) be considered as a trademark consisting of a combination of colours only if the application contains a statement to that effect.


(3) An amendment to divide an application under proviso to section 22 shall be made in Form TM-M.


(4) An application, not being a series trademark shall be in respect of one trademark only, for as many class or classes of goods or services as may be made.


(5) In the case of an application for registration in respect of all the goods or services included in a class or of a large variety of goods or services in a class, the Registrar may refuse to accept the application unless he is satisfied that
the specification is justified by the use of the trademark which the applicant has made or intends to make if and when it is registered:


Provided that while making an application for registration of a trademarks, the names of goods and services stated in the application shall, as far as may be, correspond to those given in the classification of the goods and services published
by the registrar under sub-rule (2) of rule 20.


(6) Where an applicant files a single application and the Registrar determines that the goods or services applied for fall in class or classes in addition to those applied for, the applicant shall restrict the specification of goods or
services to the class or classes already applied for or amend the application to add additional class or classes by filing an application on Form TM-M and by payment of the appropriate fee:


Provided that in case all the goods or services fall in a class other than the class specified, the registrar may permit the correction of class by filing the request on Form TM-M.


24. Application under convention arrangement. - (1) Where a right to priority is claimed by reason of an application for registration of a trademark duly filed in a convention country under section 154, a certificate by the Registrar or competent authority of that Trade Marks Office shall be submitted with the application for registration of trademark and it shall include the particulars of the trademark, the country or countries and the date or dates of filing of application and such other relevant particulars as may be required by the Registrar.


(2) Unless such certificate has been filed at the time of the filing of the application for registration, there shall be filed, within two months of the filing of such application certifying or verifying to the satisfaction of the Registrar, the date of the filing of the application, the country or countries, the representation of the trademark, and the goods or services covered by the application.


(3) The application shall include a statement indicating the filing date of the filing in the convention application, the name of the convention country where it was filed, the serial number, if any and a statement indicating that priority is claimed:
Provided that where the applicant files more priority claims than one under section 154 in respect of the same trademark, the Registrar shall take the date of the earlier application in a convention country, as the priority date:


Provided further that such priority date shall not be allowed for the goods and services not covered in the convention application:


Provided also that only a single priority shall be claimed in respect of all the goods or services mentioned in the application for registration of a trademark filed under rule 23(1).


25. Statement of user in applications.- (1) An application to register a trademark shall, unless the trademark is proposed to be used, contain a statement of the period during which, and the person by whom it has been used in respect
of all the goods or services mentioned in the application.


(2) In case, the use of the trademark is claimed prior to the date of application, the applicant shall file an affidavit testifying to such use along with supporting documents.


26. Representation of trademark. - (1) Every application for the registration of a trademark, and where additional copies of the application are required, every such copy, shall contain a clear and legible representation of the trademark of size not exceeding 8 cm x 8 cm.


(2) Where an application contains a statement to the effect that the applicant wishes to claim combination of colours as a distinctive feature of the trademark, the application shall be accompanied with reproduction of the trademark
in that combination of colours.


(3) Where the application contains a statement to the effect that the trademark is a three dimensional trademark, the reproduction of the trademark shall consist of a two dimensional graphic or photographic reproduction as
follows, namely:-


(i) the reproduction furnished shall consist of three different view of the trademark;


(ii) where, the Registrar considers that the reproduction of the trademark furnished by the applicant does not sufficiently show the particulars of the three dimensional trademark, he may call upon the applicant to furnish within two months, up to five further different views of the trademark and a description by words of the trademark;


(iii) where the Registrar considers the different views or description of the trademark referred to in clause


(ii), still do not sufficiently show the particulars of the three dimensional trademark, he may call upon the applicant to furnish a specimen of the trademark.


(4) (i) Where an application for the registration of a trademark consists of shape of goods or its packaging, the reproduction furnished shall consist of at least five different views of the trademark and a description by word of the
trademark.


(ii) If the Registrar considers the different views or description of the trademark referred to in clause (i) do not sufficiently show the particulars of the shape of goods or its packaging, he may call upon the applicant to furnish a
specimen of the goods or packaging, as the case may be.


(5) Where an application for the registration of a trademark consists of a sound as a trademark, the reproduction of the same shall be submitted in the MP3 format not exceeding thirty seconds' length recorded on a medium which allows for easy and clearly audible replaying accompanied with a graphical representation of its
notations.


(6) If the Registrar is not satisfied with any representation of a trademark, he may at any time require another representation satisfactory to him to be substituted before proceedings with the application.


27. Series Trademarks. - (1) Where an application is made for the registration of trademarks as a series under sub-section (3) of section 15, copies of representation of each trademark of the series shall accompany the application in
the manner set forth in rule 26. The Registrar, if satisfied that the trademarks constitute a series, shall proceed further with the applications.


(2) At any time before the publication of the application in the Journal, the applicant applying under sub-rule (1) may request in Form TM-M, for the division of the application into separate application or applications, as the case
may be, in respect of one or more trademarks in that series and the Registrar shall, if he is satisfied that the division requested conforms with sub-section (3) of section 15, divide the application or applications accordingly on payment of
divisional fees.


28. Transliteration and translation. - Where a trademark contains one or more words or numbers in scripts other than Hindi or English, the applicant shall provide in the application, a precise transliteration and translation of each such
word and number in English or in Hindi and state the language to which the word(s) or number(s) belong.


29. Names and representations of living persons or persons recently dead.- Where the name or representation of any person appears on a trademark, the applicant shall, if the Registrar so requires, furnish him with the consent in
writing of such person in case he is living or, in case his death took place within twenty years prior to the date of the application for registration of the trademark, of his legal representative, as the case may be, to the use of the name or
representation and in default of such consent the Registrar may refuse to proceed with the application for registration of the trademark.


30. Name or description of goods or services on a trademark. - (1) Where the name or description of any goods or services appears on a trademark, the Registrar may refuse to register such trademark in respect of any goods or
services other than the goods or services so named or described.


(2) Where the name or description of any goods or services appear on a trademark, which name or description in use varies, the Registrar may permit the registration of the trademark for those and other goods or services on the
applicant giving an undertaking that the name or description will be varied when the trademark is used upon goods or services covered by the specification other than the named or described goods or services. The undertaking so given
shall be included in the advertisement of the application in the Journal under section 20.


31. Deficiencies. - Subject to sub-rule (2) of rule 10, where an application for registration of a trademark does not satisfy the requirement of any of the provisions of the Act or rules, the Registrar shall send notice thereof to the applicant to remedy the deficiencies and if within one month of the date of the notice, the applicant fails to remedy any deficiency so notified to him, the application shall be treated as abandoned.


32. Acknowledgement of the Application. - Every application for the registration of a trademark in respect of any goods or services shall be acknowledged by giving a system generated electronic receipt or sending such receipt to the e-mail address provided for the purpose.


33. Examination, Objection to acceptance, hearing.- (1) The Registrar shall cause the application to be examined as per provisions of the Act, wherein a search shall also be conducted amongst the earlier trademarks, registered or applied for registration, for the purpose of ascertaining whether there are on record in respect of the same goods or services or similar goods or services any trademark identical with or deceptively similar to the trademark applied for. The Registrar may cause the re-examination of the application including re-search of earlier trademarks at
any time before the acceptance of the application but shall not be bound to do so.


(2) If, on consideration of the application for registration of a trademark and any evidence of use or of distinctiveness or of any other matter which the applicant may or may be required to furnish, the Registrar has any objection to the acceptance of the application or proposes to accept it subject to such conditions, amendments, modifications or limitations as he may think fit to impose under sub-section (4) of section 18, the Registrar shall communicate such objection or proposal in writing to the applicant in the form of an examination report.


(3) If, on consideration of the application for registration of a trademark and any evidence of use or of distinctiveness or of any other matter which the applicant may or may be required to furnish, the Registrar accepts the application for registration absolutely, he shall communicate such acceptance to the applicant and cause the application to be advertised as accepted under sub-section (1) of section 20.


(4) If, within one month from the date of receipt of the examination report, the applicant fails to respond to the communication, the Registrar may treat the application as abandoned.


(5) In case the response to the examination report is received within the aforesaid time, the same shall be duly considered and if the Registrar accepts the application for registration, he shall communicate such acceptance to the
applicant and cause the application to be advertised as accepted under sub-section (1) of section 20.


(6) If the response to the examination report is not satisfactory or where the applicant has requested for hearing, the registrar shall provide an opportunity of hearing to the applicant and the same shall be conducted as per rule
115.


(7) In case the applicant fails to appear at the scheduled date of hearing and no reply to the office objection has been submitted by the applicant, the Registrar may treat the application as abandoned.


(8) Where the applicant has submitted his reply to the examination report within the aforesaid period or has appeared in the hearing and made his submissions, the Registrar shall pass an appropriate order.


34. Expedited Processing of Application- (1) The applicant may, after the receipt of the official number of the application, request for expedited processing of application made for the registration of a trademark in Form TM-M on
payment of fee as specified in First Schedule. Such an application shall be examined expeditiously and ordinarily within three months from the date of submission of the application. Thereafter, the following proceedings viz. the consideration of response to the examination report, scheduling of show cause hearing, if required, the publication of the application and the opposition thereto, if any, till final disposal of the application shall also be dealt with expeditiously subject to such guidelines as may be published in this regard by the Registrar in the trademarks Journal.


(2) The Registrar may limit the number of applications for expedited processing of trademark applications by publishing the same in the trademarks Journal.


35. Notice of withdrawal of application for registration.- A notice of withdrawal of an application for the registration of a trademark under sub-section (2) of section 133, for the purpose of obtaining repayment of any fee paid
on the filing of the application, shall be given in writing within one month from the date of the receipt of communication mentioned in sub-rule (2) of rule 33.


36. Decision of Registrar.- (1) The decision of the Registrar under rules 33, 34 or 41 shall be communicated to the applicant in writing at his address of service and if the applicant intends to appeal from such decision he may within
thirty days from the date of such communication apply in Form TM-M to the Registrar requiring him to state in writing the grounds of, and the materials used by him in arriving at, his decision.


(2) In a case where the Registrar makes any requirements to which the applicant does not object the applicant shall comply the said requirement before the Registrar issues a statement in writing under sub-rule (1).


(3) The date when the statement in writing under sub-rule (1) is received by the applicant, shall be deemed to be the date of the Registrar's decision for the purpose of appeal.


37.Correction and amendment of application.- An applicant for registration of a trademark may, whether before or after acceptance of his application but before the registration of the trademark, apply in Form TM-M accompanied by the
prescribed fee for the correction of any error in or in connection with his application or any amendment of his application:


Provided, no such amendment shall be permitted which shall have the effect of substantially altering the trademark applied for or substitute a new specification of goods or services not included in the application as filed.


38. Withdrawal of acceptance by the Registrar.- (1) If, after the acceptance of an application but before the registration of the trademark, the Registrar has any objection to the acceptance of the application on the ground that it was accepted in error, or that the trademark ought not to have been accepted in the circumstances of the case, or proposes that the trademark should be registered only subject to conditions, limitations, divisions or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions, or limitations, subject to which the application has been accepted, the Registrar shall communicate such objection in writing to the applicant.


(2) Unless within thirty days from the date of receipt of the communication mentioned in sub-rule (1), the applicant amends his application to comply with the requirements of the Registrar or applies for a hearing, the acceptance
of the application shall be deemed to be withdrawn by the Registrar, and the application shall proceed as if it had not been accepted.


(3) Where the applicant intimates the Registrar within the period mentioned in sub-rule (2) that he desires to be heard, the Registrar shall give notice to the applicant of a date when he will hear him. Such appointment shall be for a
date at least fifteen days after the date of the notice, unless the applicant consents to a shorter notice. The applicant may state that he does not desire to be heard and submit such submissions, as he may consider desirable.


(4) The Registrar may, after hearing the applicant, on considering the submissions, if any, of the applicant, pass such orders as he may deem fit.

 

 

                                 Advertisement of Application

 

39. Manner of Advertisement.- (1) Every application for the registration of a trademark required to be advertised by sub-section (1) of section 20 or to be re-advertised by sub-section (2) of that section shall be advertised in the Journal.


40. Notification of correction or amendment of application.- In the case of an application to which clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 20 applies, the Registrar may, if he so decides, instead of causing the application to be
advertised again, insert in the Journal a notification setting out the number of the application, the class or classes in which it was made, the name and address of the principal place of business in India, if any, of the applicant or where the
applicant has no principal place of business in India, his address for service in India, the Journal number in which it was advertised and the correction or amendment made in the application:


Provided that in case of any error in the advertisement in respect of the trademark or specification of goods or services except for any trivial spelling mistake or class or statement of use of the trademark or in any other case as the Registrar thinks fit, the Registrar may advertise the trademark again cancelling the earlier advertisement.


41. Request to Registrar for particulars of advertisement of a trademark.- Any person may request the Registrar in Form TM-M to be informed of the number, and date of the Journal in which a trademark which is sought to be registered specified in the Form was advertised and the Registrar shall furnish such particulars to the person making the request.

 

 

                                           Opposition to Registration

 

42. Notice of Opposition. - (1) A notice of opposition to the registration of a trademark under sub-section (1) of section 21, with such particulars as specified in Rule 43, shall be filed in form TM-O within four months from the date of
publication of the trademark journal in which the application for registration of the trademark was advertised or re advertised.


(2) Where a notice of opposition has been filed in respect of a single application for the registration of a trademark for different classes of goods and services, it shall bear the fee in respect of each class in relation to which the opposition is filed.


(3) Where an opposition is filed only for a particular class or classes in respect of a single application made under sub-section (2) of section 18, the application for remaining class or classes shall not proceed to registration until a request in Form TM-M for division of the application together with the divisional fee is made by the applicant.


(4) Where in respect of a single application for the registration of a trademark no notice of opposition is filed in a class or classes, the application in respect of such class or classes shall, subject to section 19 and sub-section (1) of section 23, proceed to registration after the division of the application in the class or classes in respect of which an opposition is pending.


(5) A copy of notice of opposition shall be ordinarily served by the Registrar to the applicants within three months of the receipt of the same by the appropriate office:


Provided that where the applicant has already filed the counter statement on the basis of the copy of notice of opposition made available in the electronic records on the official website, the requirement of service of copy of the
notice of opposition to the applicant shall be dispensed with.


43. Requirements of Notice of Opposition.- (1) A notice of opposition shall contain,-


(a). in respect of an application against which opposition is entered-


(i) the application number against which opposition is entered;


(ii) an indication of the goods or services listed in the trademark application against which opposition is entered; and


(iii) the name of the applicant for the trademark.


(b). in respect of the earlier trademark or the earlier right on which the opposition is based,-


(i) where the opposition is based on an earlier trademark, a statement to that effect and an indication of the status of earlier trademark;


(ii) where available, the application number or registration number and the filing date, including the priority date of the earlier trademark;


(iii) where the opposition is based on an earlier trademark which is alleged to be a well-known trademark within the meaning of sub-section 2 of section 11, an indication to that effect and an indication of the country or countries in which the earlier trademark is recognised to be well known;


(iv) where the opposition is based on an earlier trademark having a reputation within the meaning of paragraph (b) of sub-clause (2) of section 11 of the Act, an indication to that effect and an indication of whether the earlier trademark is registered or applied for;


(v) a representation of the trademark of the opponent and where appropriate, a description of the trademark or earlier right; and


(vi) Where the goods or services in respect of which earlier trademark has been registered or applied for or in respect of which the earlier trademark is well known within the meaning of sub-section (2) of section 11 or has a reputation within the meaning of that section, the opponent shall when indicating all the goods or services for which the earlier trademark is protected, also indicate those goods or services on which the opposition is based.


(c). in respect of the opposing party-


(i) where the opposition is entered by the proprietor of the earlier trademark or of the earlier right, his name and address and an indication that he is the proprietor of such trademark or right;


(ii) where opposition is entered by a licensee not being a registered user, the name of the licensee and his address and an indication that he has been authorised to enter the opposition;


(iii) where the opposition is entered by the successor in title to the registered proprietor of a trademark who has not yet been registered as new proprietor, an indication to that effect, the name and address of the opposing party and an indication of the date on which the application for registration of the new proprietor was received by the appropriate office or, where this information is not available, was sent to the appropriate office; and


(iv) where the opposing party has no place of business in India, the name of the opponents and his address for service in India.


(d). The grounds on which the opposition is based.


(2) A notice of opposition shall be verified at the foot by the opponent or by his duly authorised agent.


(3) The person verifying shall state specifically by reference to the numbered paragraphs of the notice of opposition, what he verifies of his own knowledge and what he verifies upon information received and believed to be true.


(4) The verification shall be signed by the person making it and shall state the date on which and the place at which it was signed.


44. Counterstatement.- (1) The counterstatement required by sub-section (2) of section 21 shall be sent on Form TM-O within two months from the receipt by the applicant of the copy of the notice of opposition from the Registrar and shall set out what facts, if any, alleged in the notice of opposition, are admitted by the applicant. A copy of the counterstatement shall be ordinarily served by the Registrar to the opponent within two months from the date of receipt
of the same.


(2) The counterstatement shall be verified in the manner as provided in sub-rules (2), (3) and (4) of rule 43.


45. Evidence in support of opposition.- (1) Within two months from service of a copy of the counterstatement, the opponent shall either leave with the Registrar, such evidence by way of affidavit as he may desire to adduce in support of his opposition or shall intimate to the Registrar and to the applicant in writing that he does not desire to adduce evidence in support of his opposition but intends to rely on the facts stated in the notice of opposition. He shall deliver to
the applicant copies of any evidence including exhibits, if any, that he leaves with the Registrar under this sub-rule and intimate the Registrar in writing of such delivery.


(2) If an opponent takes no action under sub-rule (1) within the time mentioned therein, he shall be deemed to have abandoned his opposition.


46. Evidence in support of application.- (1) Within two months on the receipt by the applicant of the copies of affidavits in support of opposition or of the intimation that the opponent does not desire to adduce any evidence in
support of his opposition, the applicant shall leave with the Registrar such evidence by way of affidavit as he desires to adduce in support of his application and shall deliver to the opponent copies thereof or shall intimate to the Registrar and the opponent that he does not desire to adduce any evidence but intends to rely on the facts stated in the counterstatement and or on the evidence already left by him in connection with the application in question. In case the applicant adduces any evidence or relies on any evidence already left by him in connection with the application, he shall deliver to the opponent copies of the same, including exhibits, if any, and shall intimate the Registrar in writing of such delivery.


(2) If an applicant takes no action under sub-rule (1) within the time mentioned therein, he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.


47. Evidence in reply by opponent. - Within one month from the receipt by the opponent of the copies of the applicant's affidavit the opponent may leave with the Registrar evidence by affidavit in reply and shall deliver to the applicant copies of the same including exhibits, if any, and shall intimate the Registrar in writing of such delivery.


48. Further evidence.- No further evidence shall be left on either side, but in any proceedings before the Registrar, he may at any time, if he thinks fit, give leave to either the applicant or the opponent to leave any evidence upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as he may think fit.


49. Translation of documents.-Where a document is in a language other than Hindi or English and is referred to in the notice of opposition, counterstatement or an affidavit filed in an opposition proceeding, an attested translation thereof in Hindi or English shall be submitted before the registrar and a copy thereof shall be provided to opposite party.


50. Hearing and decision. - (1) The Registrar, after the closure of the evidence, shall give notice to the parties of the first date of hearing. The date of hearing shall be for a date at least one month after the date of the first notice.


(2) A party to a proceeding may make a request for adjournment of the hearing with reasonable cause in Form TM-M accompanied by the prescribed fee, at least three days before the date of hearing and the Registrar, if he thinks fit
to do so, and upon such terms as he may direct, may adjourn the hearing and intimate the parties accordingly:


Provided that no party shall be given more than two adjournments and each adjournment shall not be for more than thirty days.


(3) If the applicant is not present at the adjourned date of hearing and at the time mentioned in the notice, the application may be treated as abandoned.


(4) If the opponent is not present at the adjourned date of hearing and at time mentioned in the notice, the opposition may be dismissed for want of prosecution and the application may proceed to registration subject to section 19.


(5) The Registrar shall consider written arguments if submitted by a party to the proceeding.


(6) The decision of the Registrar shall be communicated to the parties in writing at the address given for service.


51. Security for costs.-The security for costs which the Registrar may require under sub-section (6) of section 21
may be fixed at any amount which he may consider proper, and such amount may be further enhanced by him at any
stage in the opposition proceedings.

 

 

                                            Notice of Non-Completion of Registration

 

52. Procedure for giving notice. -The notice which the Registrar is required by sub-section (3) of section 23 to give to an applicant, shall be sent in Form RG-1 to the applicant at the address for service. The notice shall specify twenty one days time from the date thereof or such further time not exceeding one month as the Registrar may allow on a request made in form TM-M for completion of the registration.

 

 

                                           Registration

 

53. Entry in the Register.- (1) Where no notice of opposition to an application advertised or re-advertised in the Journal is filed within the period specified in sub-section (1) of section 21, or where an opposition is filed and it is dismissed, the Registrar shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 23 or section 19, enter the trademark on the register.


(2) The entry of a trademark in the register shall specify the date of filing of application, the actual date of the registration, the goods or services and the class or classes in respect of which it is registered, and all particulars required
by sub-section (1) of section 6 including-


(a) the address of the principal place of business in India, if any, of the proprietor of the trademark or in the case of a jointly owned trademark, of such of the joint proprietors of the trademark as have a principal place of business in India;


(b) where the proprietor of the trademark has no place of business in India, his address for service in India as entered in the application for registration together with his address in his home country;


(c) in the case of a jointly owned trademark, where none of the joint proprietors has a principal place of business in India, the address for service in India as given in the application together with the address of each of the joint proprietors in his home country;


(d) the particulars of the trade, business, profession, occupation or other description of the proprietor or, in the case of a jointly owned trademark, of the joint proprietors of the trademark as entered in the application for registration;


(e) particulars affecting the scope of the registration or the rights conferred by the registration;


(f) the convention application date, if any, to be accorded pursuant to an application from applicants of a convention country made under section 154;


(g) where the trademark is a collective or certification trademark, that fact;


(h) where the trademark is registered pursuant to sub-section 4 of section 11 with the consent of the proprietor of an earlier trademark or other earlier right, that fact; and


(i) the appropriate office of the Trade Marks Registry in relation to the trademark.


(3) The Registrar may from time to time, in consultation with computer experts, formulate guidelines for keeping official records in electronic form.


54. Associated trademarks.- (1) Where a trademark is registered as associated with any other trademarks, the Registrar shall note in the register in connection with the first mentioned trademark the registration numbers of the trademarks with which it is associated and shall also note in the register in connection with each of the associated trademarks, the registration number of the first mentioned trademark as being a trademark associated therewith.


(2) An application under sub-section (5) of section 16 to dissolve the association as respects any of the trademarks registered as associated trademarks shall be made in Form TM-P and shall include statement of the grounds of the application.


55. Death of applicant before registration.- In case of death of any applicant for the registration of a trademark after the date of his application and before the trademark has been entered in the register, the Registrar may, on request
on form TM-M and on proof of the applicant's death and on proof of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the application, the name of successor in interest in place of the name of such deceased applicant,
and the application may proceed thereafter as so amended.


56. Certificate of registration.- (1) The certificate of registration to be issued by the Registrar under sub-section 2 of section 23 shall be on Form RG-2 and shall include the trademark. It shall bear the seal of the Trade Marks Registry.


(2) The certificate of registration referred to in sub-rule (1) shall not be used in legal proceedings or for obtaining registration abroad. The certificate issued under section 137 shall be used for these purposes.


(3) The Registrar may issue duplicate or further copies of the certificate of registration on request by the registered proprietor in Form TM-M accompanied by the prescribed fee:


Provided that, no such duplicate or copy of certification of registration shall be issued where such request is received after the expiry of time limit for renewal of registration and restoration of registered trademark.

 

 

                                             CHAPTER III

                        RENEWAL OF REGISTRATION AND RESTORATION

 

57. Renewal of registration. - (1) An application for the renewal of the registration of a trademark shall be made in Form TM-R along with the fee as prescribed in the first schedule and may be made at any time not more than one year before the expiration of the last registration of the trademark.


(2) A request for renewal of registration of the trademark filed within prescribed time shall be allowed unless the trademark has been removed or cancelled or is otherwise not renewable under any of the provisions of the Act and rules or by any order of the competent court or the Registrar.


58. Notice before removal of trademark from register.- (1) In case no application for renewal of the registration in the prescribed form together with the specified fee has been received, the Registrar shall send, not more than six months before the expiration of registration of the trademark, a notice in Form RG-3 at the address of service informing the registered proprietor of the approaching date of expiration and the conditions, if any, subject to which the renewal of the registration may be obtained.


(2) Where, in the case of a trademark the registration of which (by reference to the date of application for registration) becomes due for renewal, the trademark is registered at any time within six months before the date on which renewal is due, the registration may be renewed by the payment of the renewal fee within six months after the actual date of registration and where the renewal fee is not paid within that period, the Registrar shall subject to rule 60, remove the trademark from the register.


(3) Where, in the case of a trademark the registration of which (by reference to the date of application for registration) becomes due for renewal, the trademark is registered after the date of renewal, the registration may be renewed by the payment of the renewal fee within six months of the actual date of registration and where the renewal fee is not paid within that period the Registrar shall, subject to rule 60, remove the trademark from the register.


(4) The renewal of registration of a collective trademark or a certification trademark shall be in Form TM-R along with the prescribed fee as specified in the First Schedule.


59. Advertisement of removal of trademark from the register.- If at the expiration of registration of a trademark, the renewal fees has not been paid, the Registrar may remove the trademark from the register and advertise the fact forthwith in the Journal:


Provided that the Registrar shall not remove the trademark from the register if an application for payment of surcharge is made under proviso to sub-section(3) of section 25 in Form TM-R within six months from the expiration of the registration of the trademark.


60. Restoration and renewal of registration.- An application for the restoration of a trademark to the register and renewal of its registration under sub-section (4) of section 25, shall be made in Form TM-R within one year from the expiration of the registration of the trademark accompanied by the prescribed fee. The Registrar shall, while considering the request for such restoration and renewal have regard to the interest of other affected persons.


61. Notice and advertisement of renewal and restoration. - Upon the renewal or restoration and renewal of registration, a notice to that effect shall be sent to the registered proprietor and every registered user and the renewal or
restoration and renewal shall be advertised in the Journal.

 

                                                   CHAPTER IV

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION UNDER MADRID PROTOCOL

 

62. Definitions.- (1) For the purpose of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,-


(a) 'Article' means article referred to in Madrid Protocol;


(b) "electronic form" shall have the meaning as is assigned to it in clause (r) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000);


(2) Words and expressions used in these rules, in the context of international application or international registration under Chapter IVA of the Act, but not defined shall have the same meaning and respectively assigned to them in the Madrid Protocol or the Common Regulations.


63. Language.- An International Application or any communication relating thereto for transmission to International Bureau or any advice by way of notification of extension of protection to India resulting from the international registration shall be in English.


64. Issue of notices or communications etc. and response thereto.- Any notice or communication relating to both an international application under section 36D and international registration where India has been designated, under section 36E, shall be issued by the Registrar only in electronic form, and any response thereto shall also be received likewise.


65. International application in respect of which India is the country of origin.-International application originating from India, or any communication relating thereto in accordance with the Common Regulations shall be filed
electronically through the Trade Marks International Application System.


66. Verification and Certification of international application in respect of which India is the country of origin.- (1) Where an international application is filed under section 36D for transmission to the International Bureau, the Registrar shall certify the contents of the application in Form MM2(E) as provided by International Bureau subject to the payment of fees as specified in Entry Number 23 of the First Schedule.


(2) Where the international application complies with the requirements, the Registrar shall so certify in the international application indicating also the date on which the said international application was received; and shall forward the same to the International Bureau within two months from the date of receipt of the said application.


(3) Where the international application does not meet the requirements, the Registrar shall not forward it to the International Bureau, and shall require the applicant by notice to comply with the requirement as specified therein, and
shall forward the International Application only after such compliance within the period specified in the notice.


67. Handling fee.- A handling fee as specified in First Schedule shall be payable to the Registrar for certification and transmittal of international application to the International Bureau and such fee shall be paid in Indian rupees electronically along with the application.


68. Manner of keeping the record of international registrations where India has been designated.- (1) On receipt of advice from the International Bureau about an international registration designating India and notification about the extension of protection resulting from such international registration, the Registrar shall enter all the particulars thereof electronically in a record called the 'Record of Particulars of International Registration'. Any change in the particulars as and when received from the International Bureau shall be entered in the said record.



(2) Any entry made in such record shall, to the extent that it applies to India as a designated contracting party, have the same effect as if it had been recorded by the Registrar in the Register of trademarks.


69. Examination of application under section 36E. - (1) The advice referred to in rule 68 shall be examined ordinarily within two months from the date of receipt of such advice.


(2) Where, the Registrar finds that the trademark which is the subject of an international registration designating India, cannot be protected, he shall, before the expiry of refusal period applicable under article 5 of the Madrid Protocol,
notify to the International Bureau a provisional refusal of protection.


(3) Where there are no grounds for refusal to grant protection, the Registrar shall advertise the particulars concerning international registration under section 20 of the Act in a separate part of the trademarks Journal ordinarily within a period of six months from the date of receipt of advice.


(4) Where an opposition is filed under section 21 of the Act, the Registrar shall, notify that fact to the International Bureau as a provisional refusal based on the opposition in accordance with the Protocol and Common Regulation.


(5) The international registration, on receipt of an opposition thereto, shall be processed in accordance with the provisions contained in rules 42 to 51.


(6) Where the procedure mentioned under sub-rules (1) to (5) have been completed with and the Registrar has decided to confirm such refusal of protection of the trademark for all the goods or services for which the protection has been requested, the Registrar shall send to the International Bureau a statement to that effect.


(7) Where, the provisional refusal has been either totally or partially withdrawn, the Registrar shall send to the International Bureau


(a) a statement to the effect that the provisional refusal is withdrawn and the protection of the trademark is granted for all the goods or services for which the protection has been requested; or


(b) a statement indicating conditions or limitations subject to which, and the goods or services in respect of which the protection is granted.


(8) Where there is no ground to refuse protection, the Registrar shall notify the International Bureau to the effect that protection is granted to the trademark in India.


(9) Where there is further decision affecting the protection of trademark in India, the Registrar shall send further statement to the International Bureau to that effect.


70. Invalidation of protection.- Where the protection resulting from an international registration has ceased to have effect, or varied, in India, as a result of legal proceedings under the Act, the Registrar shall notify the International
Bureau accordingly.


71. Effect of cancellation of international registration.- Where an international registration is cancelled at the request of office of origin, the provisions of article 9 quinquies of the Protocol shall apply to such international registration in so far as it designates India.


72. Collective and Certification Trademarks.- Where an international registration designating India is in respect of a collective trademark or a certification trademark, the regulations governing the use of such collective trademark or
certification trademark shall be submitted directly, by the holder of that international registration to the registrar within the period of one month from the date of advice by the International Bureau.


73. Replacement of national registration.- Where an international registration is deemed to replace the registration held in India under sub-section (6) of section 36E of the Act, the registrar shall, upon request of the holder of international registration take note of the international registration and make necessary entry in the Register maintained under sub-section (1) of section 6 of the Act. Thereafter, the Registrar shall notify the International Bureau accordingly under rule 21 of the Common Regulations.


74. Subject to provisions of the Act, the provisions of the Madrid Protocol, Common Regulations and Administrative Instructions shall apply in relation to international applications originating from India and international registrations where India has been designated.

 

 

                                               CHAPTER V

                                ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSMISSION

 

75. Application for entry of assignment or transmission.- An application to register the title of a person who becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trademark shall be made in Form TM-P.

76. Case accompanying application.- (1) A person applying for registration of his title under rule 75, shall, along with his request in form TM-P, file duly certified copy of original document, instrument or deed, as the case may be, purporting to transfer the title in the trademark and a statement of case in support of his request.


(2) The Registrar shall dispose of an application made under rule 75 ordinarily within three month from the date of application and intimate the same to the applicant.


77. Proof of title. - The Registrar may, where there is a reasonable doubt about the veracity of any statement or any document furnished, call upon any person who applies to be registered as proprietor of a registered trademark to
furnish such proof or additional proof of title as the Registrar thinks fit.


78. Impounding of Instruments.- If in the opinion of the Registrar any instrument produced in proof of title of a person is not properly or sufficiently stamped, the Registrar shall impound and deal with it in the manner provided by Chapter IV of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899 (2 of 1899).


79. Assignments involving transmission of moneys outside India. - If there is in force any law regulating the transmission of moneys outside India, the Registrar shall not register the title of a person who becomes entitled to a trademark by an assignment which involves such transmission except on production of the permission of the authority specified in such law for such transmission.


80. Application for Registrar's direction as to advertisement of an assignment of a trademark without goodwill of the business. - (1) An application for directions under section 42 shall be made in Form TM-P and shall state the date on which the assignment was made. The application shall give particulars of the registration in the case of a registered trademark, and in the case of an unregistered trademark shall show the trademark and give particulars including user of the unregistered trademark that has been assigned therewith. The Registrar may call for any evidence or further information and if he is satisfied with regard to the various matters he shall issue directions in writing with respect to the advertisement of the assignment.


(2) The Registrar may refuse to consider such an application in a case to which section 41 applies, unless his approval has been obtained under the said section and a reference identifying the Registrar's notification of approval is included in the application.


(3) A request for an extension of the period within which the application mentioned in sub-rule (1) shall be made shall be in Form TM-P


81. Application for entry of assignment without goodwill.- An application under rule 75 relating to an assignment of a trademark in respect of any goods or services shall state-


(a) whether the trademark had been or was used in the business in any of those goods or services, and


(b) whether the assignment was made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of that business, and if both those circumstances subsisted, then the applicant shall leave at the Trade Marks Registry a copy of the directions to advertise the assignment, obtained upon application under rule 80, and such proof, including copies of advertisements or otherwise, as the Registrar may require, to show that his directions have been fulfilled and if the Registrar is not satisfied that the directions have been fulfilled, he shall not proceed with the application.


82. Separate registration.- Where pursuant to an application under rule 75, and as the result of a division and separation of the goods or services of a registration or a division and separation of places or markets, different persons become registered separately under the same registration number as subsequent proprietors of a trademark, each of the resulting separate registrations in the names of those different persons shall be deemed to be a separate registration for all the purposes of the Act.


83. Registrar's certificate or approval as to certain assignment and transmissions.- Any person who desires to obtain the Registrar's certificate under sub-section 2 of section 40 or his notification of approval under section 41 shall
send to the Registrar with his application in Form TM-P, a statement of case in duplicate setting out the circumstances and a copy of any instrument or proposed instrument effecting the assignment or transmission. The Registrar may call
for any evidence or further information that he may consider necessary and the statement of case shall be amended if required to include all the relevant circumstances and shall, if required, be verified by an affidavit. The Registrar, after
hearing (if so required) the applicant and any other person whom the Registrar may consider to be interested in the transfer, shall consider the matter and issue a certificate thereon or a notification in writing of approval or disapproval thereof, as the case may be, to the applicant and shall also inform such other person accordingly. Where a statement of case is amended, three copies thereof in its final form shall be left at the Trade Marks Registry. The Registrar shall seal
a copy of the statement of case in its final form to the certificate or notification.



84. Entry in register, of particulars of assignment.- Where the Registrar has allowed the assignment of a trademark under this Act, there shall be entered in the register the following particulars of assignment, namely:-


(i) the name and address of the assignee;


(ii) the date of the assignment;


(iii) where the assignment is in respect of any right in the trademark, a description of the right assigned;


(iv) the basis under which the assignment is made; and


(v) the date on which the entry is made in the register.


85. Registration of assignment to a company under section 46.- For the purposes of sub-section (4) of section 46, the period within which a company may be registered as the subsequent proprietor of a registered trademark upon
application made under rule 75 shall be six months from the date of advertisement in the Journal of the registration of the trademark or such further period not exceeding six months as the Registrar may allow on application being made in Form TM-P by the applicant for registration of title or the registered proprietor, as the case may be, at any time before or during the period for which the extension can be allowed.

 

                                         CHAPTER VI

                                    REGISTERED USER

 

86. Application for registration as registered user. - (1) An application to the Registrar for the registration under section 49, of a person as a registered user of a registered trademark, shall be made jointly by that person and the
registered proprietor of the trademark in Form TM-U and shall be accompanied by the documents, evidence and details as required in sub-section (1) of section 49.


(2) The registered proprietor and the proposed registered user shall also produce and file such other documents and furnish such other evidence and information as may be required in that behalf by the Registrar.


(3) No application shall be entertained unless the same has been filed within six months from the date of the agreement referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49.


(4) Where more than one application for registration as registered user is made by the same registered proprietor and the same proposed registered user in respect of trademarks covered by the same agreement, the documents mentioned in sub section (1) of section 49 may be filed with any one of the applications and a cross reference to such documents given in the other application or applications.


87. Consideration by the Registrar.- The Registrar under sub-section (2) of section 49, shall, if satisfied that the application and the accompanying documents comply with the relevant provisions of the Act and the rules, register the proposed registered user in respect of the goods or services as to which he is so satisfied.


88. Hearing before refusing an application or to accept it conditionally. - The Registrar may, after giving an opportunity of hearing to the parties concerned, either refuse the application or accept the same with such condition(s), if
any, as he may think fit and shall communicate such order in writing to the parties.


89. Entry in the register. - (1) Where the Registrar under sub-section (2) of section 49 accepts an application for registration as registered user; he shall register the proposed registered user as registered user and publish the same in the Journal.


(2) The entry of a registered user in the register shall state the date on which the application for registration of registered user was made, which date shall be deemed to be the date of registration as registered user of the person
mentioned in the entry. The entry shall also state, in addition to the particulars and statements mentioned in paragraphs (i) to (iv) of sub-clause (b) of clause (1) of section 49, the name, description and principal place of business in India of
the registered user and if he does not carry on business in India his address for service in India.


90. Registration not to imply authorisation to transmit money outside India.- The registration as registered user of a trademark shall not be deemed to imply an approval, of the agreement in so far as it relates to the transmission
of any money, as consideration for the use of the said trademark, to any place outside India.


91. Communication of registration as registered user. - Communication in writing of the registration of a registered user shall be sent by the Registrar to the registered proprietor of the trademark, to the registered user and to every other registered user whose name is entered in relation to the same trademark and shall also be inserted in the Journal within three months of such entry in the register.


92. Registered proprietor's application to vary entry. - An application by the registered proprietor of a trademark for the variation of the registration of a registered user of that trademark under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of
section 50 shall be made in Form TM-U and where the registered user has given consent to such variation, a copy of such consent in writing shall also be filed.


93. Cancellation of registration of registered user. - (1) An application for the cancellation of the registration of a registered user under sub-clause (b) to sub-clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 50 shall be made in Form TM-U.
(2) In case of the registration of a registered user for a period, in accordance with paragraph (iv) of sub-clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 49, the Registrar shall cancel the entry of the registered user at the end of that period.
Where some or all the goods or services are omitted from those in respect of which a trademark is registered, the Registrar shall at the same time omit them from those specifications of registered users of the trademark in which they
are comprised. The Registrar shall notify every cancellation or omission under this sub-rule to the registered users whose permitted use is affected thereby and to the registered proprietor of the trademark.


94. Power of the Registrar to call for information with respect to registered user.- The Registrar may at any time, by notice in writing, require the registered proprietor to furnish him information under sub-section (1) of section 51
and take action in accordance with sub-section (2) of that section.


95. Procedure on application to vary entry or cancel registration.- (1) The Registrar shall notify in writing applications under section 50 to the registered proprietor and each registered user (not being the applicant in either case)
of the trademark.


(2) Any person notified under sub-rule (1) who intends to intervene in the proceedings, shall within one month of the receipt of such notification give notice to the Registrar in Form TM-U to the effect and shall send therewith a
statement of the grounds of his intervention. The Registrar shall thereupon serve or cause to be served copies of such notice and statement on the other parties, namely, the applicant, the registered proprietor, the registered user whose
registration is the subject matter of the proceeding in question and any other registered user who intervenes.


(3) In the case of any application made under section 50, the applicant and any person notified under sub-rule (1), may, within such time or times as the Registrar may appoint, leave evidence in support of his case, and the Registrar
after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, may accept or refuse the application or accept it subject to any conditions, amendments, modifications or limitations he may think right to impose and shall inform the parties in writing
accordingly.


(4) In the case of an application for varying any registration under paragraph (a) of sub-section (1) of section 50 or cancelling any registration on any of the grounds mentioned in items (i) to (iv) of sub-clause (c) of sub-section (1) of
section 50, the Registrar shall consider the application together with any notice in Form TM-U and statement of case filed and shall dispose of the application and also inform the parties in writing accordingly.


96. Registered user's application. - An Application under sub-section (2) of section 58 shall be made in Form TM-P by a registered user of a trademark or by a person duly authorised by the registered user in that behalf; and the
Registrar may require such evidence as he may think fit as to the circumstances in which the application is made.

 

                                                   CHAPTER VII

RECTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF REGISTER ALTERATION OR              RECTIFICATION OF REGISTER

 

97. Application to rectify or remove a trademark from the register.- An application to the Registrar under Section 47, 57, 68 or 77 for the making, expunging or varying of any entry relating to a trademark or a collective trademark or certification trademark in the register shall be made in Form TM-O, as the case may be, and shall be accompanied by statement in setting out fully the nature of the applicant's interest, the facts upon which he bases his case and the relief which he seeks. Where the application is made by a person who is not the registered proprietor of the trademark in question, the application and the statement aforesaid shall be left at the Trade Marks Registry. In case there
are registered users, such application and statements shall be accompanied by as many copies thereof as there are registered users. A copy each of the application and statement shall be ordinarily transmitted within one month by the
Registrar to the registered proprietor and to each of the registered user and to any other person who appears from the register to have an interest in the trademark. The application shall be verified in the manner prescribed under clause (i) of
sub-rule (c) of rule 43 for verification of a notice of opposition.


98. Further procedure. - Within two months from the receipt by a registered proprietor of the copy of the application mentioned in rule 97 or within such further period not exceeding one month in the aggregate, he shall send to
the Registrar on Form TM-O a counterstatement of the grounds on which the application is contested and if he does so, the Registrar shall serve a copy of the counterstatement on the person making the application within one month of the
receipt of the same. In case no counter statement has been filed within the period of three months from the date of receipt of the application mentioned in rule 97, the applicant for rectification shall file evidence in support of his application for
rectification under the provisions of rules 45 (1). The provision under rule 46 to 51 shall thereafter apply mutatis mutandis to the further proceedings on the application.


99. Intervention by third parties.- Any person, other than the registered proprietor, alleging interest in a registered trademark in respect of which an application is made under rule 97 may apply on Form TM-O for leave to
intervene, stating the nature of his interest, and the Registrar may refuse or grant such leave after hearing (if so required) the parties concerned, upon such conditions and terms including undertakings or conditions as to security for cost as he may deem fit to impose.


100. Rectification of the register by the Registrar of his own motion.- (1) The Notice, which the Registrar is required to issue under sub-section (4) of section 57, shall be sent in writing to the registered proprietor, to each registered user, if any, and to any other person who appears from the register to have any interest in the trademark, and shall state the grounds on which the Registrar proposes to rectify the register and shall also specify the time, not being less than one month from the date of such notice, within which an application for a hearing shall be made:
Provided that no notice shall be required to be sent to the registered proprietor, in case the registered proprietor has requested or agreed in writing for cancellation of the registration; and thereupon register shall be rectified accordingly.


(2) Unless within the time specified in the notice aforesaid, any person so notified sends to the Registrar a statement in writing setting out fully the facts upon which he relies to meet the grounds stated in the notice or applies for
a hearing, he may be treated as not desiring to take part in the proceedings and the Registrar may act accordingly.


(3) If the Registrar decides to rectify the register he shall communicate his decision in writing to the registered proprietor and to each registered user, if any.

 

 

                                        Alteration or Correction in Register

 

101. Alteration of address in register.- (1) A registered proprietor or a registered user of a trademark, the address of whose principal place of business in India or whose address in his home country as the case may be or address for
service in India, is changed so that the entry in the register is rendered incorrect, shall forthwith request the Registrar in Form TM-P to make the appropriate alteration of the address in the register, and the Registrar shall alter the register
accordingly if he is satisfied in the matter.


(2) A registered proprietor or a registered user of a trademark the address of whose principal place of business in India or whose address for service in India is altered by a public authority, so that the changed address designates the
same premises as entered in the register, may make the aforesaid request to the Registrar on Form TM-P or as the case may be, and if he does so he shall leave therewith a certificate of the alteration given by the said authority. If the
Registrar is satisfied, as to the facts of the case, he shall alter the register accordingly but shall not require any fees to be paid on the forms, notwithstanding the provisions of sub-rule (2) of rule 10 or sub-rule (2) of rule 11.


(3) (i) Where a registered proprietor makes a request under sub-rule (1) or (2), he shall serve a copy of the request on the registered user or users, if any, and inform the Registrar accordingly.


(ii) where the request aforesaid is made by a registered user, he shall serve a copy thereof on the registered proprietor and every other registered users, if any, and inform the Registrar that he had done so.


(4) In case of the alteration of the address of a person entered in the register as the address for service in India of more than one registered proprietor or registered user of trademarks, the Registrar may, on proof that the said address is
the address of the applicant and if satisfied that it is just to do so, accept an application from the person in Form TM-P so as to suit the case, for the appropriate alteration of the entries of his address as the address for service in the several registrations, particulars of which shall be given in the Form and may alter the entries accordingly.


(5) All applications under this rule on Form TM-P shall be signed by the registered proprietor or the registered user, as the case may be, or by an agent authorised by him.


(6) Where an application has been made under sub-section (1) of section 58 for the alteration of the register by correction, change, cancellation or striking out of goods or services or for the entry of a memorandum, the Registrar may
require the applicant to furnish such evidence by affidavit or otherwise as the Registrar may think fit, as to the circumstances in which the application is made. Such application shall be made in Form TM-P and a copy thereof shall
be served by the applicant on the registered user or users, if any, under the registration of the trademark in question and to any other person who appears from the register to have an interest in the trademark.


102. Alteration of registered trademark.- Where a person applies under section 59 for leave to add to or alter his registered trademark, he shall make the application in writing in Form TM-P and shall furnish copy of the trademark as
it will appear when so added to or altered. A copy of the application and of the trademark so amended or altered shall be served by the applicant on every registered user, if any.

103. Advertisement before decision and opposition etc. - (1) The Registrar shall consider the application made under rule 102 and shall, if it appears to him expedient, publish the application in the Journal before deciding it.


(2) Within three months from the date of advertisement under sub-rule (1), any person may give notice of opposition to the application in Form TM-O. A copy of the notice shall be transmitted forthwith by the Registrar to the registered proprietor and each registered user, if any, and within two months from the receipt by the registered proprietor of such copies he shall sent to the Registrar in Form TM-O a counter statement of the grounds on which the opposition is
contested. If the registered proprietor sends such a counterstatement, the Registrar shall ordinarily serve a copy thereof on the person giving notice of opposition within one month and the provisions of rules 45 to 51 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the further proceedings on the opposition:


Provided that where the registered proprietor fails to file the counter statement within the specified time, the application shall be deemed to have been abandoned.


(3) If there is no opposition, within the time specified in sub-rule (2), the Registrar shall, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, allow or refuse the application and shall communicate his decision in writing to the applicant.


104. Decision, Advertisement, Notification.- If the Registrar decides to allow the application he shall alter the trademark in the register accordingly and publish in the Journal a notification that the trademark has been altered along
with trademark as altered.

 

 

                    Re-classification of Goods in Respect of Existing Registration

 

105. Re-classification in respect of existing registration.- (1) On the amendment in international classification of goods and services (NICE Classification), the registered proprietor of a trademark may apply to the Registrar in Form TM-P for the conversion of the specification of goods and services relating to the trademark, so as to bring that specification into conformity with the amended classification.


(2) The Registrar may, thereupon, amend the description of goods and services or the classification as the case may be in accordance with international classification of goods and services (NICE Classification).


(3) The amendment in the specification of goods or services or in the classification if approved shall be advertised in the Journal; thereafter the entry in the register in respect of that registration shall be modified accordingly.

 

 

                                           CHAPTER VIII
 

                                          MISCELLANEOUS

 

106. Refusal or invalidation of registration of a trademark conflicting with a geographical indication.- A request in Form TM-O, may be made to the Registrar for the refusal or invalidation of a registered trademark by an interested party along with a statement of case together with an affidavit and which-


(a) contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to goods or class or classes of goods not originating in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory which such geographical indication indicates, if the use of such geographical indication in the trademark for such goods, is of such nature as to confuse or mislead the persons as to the true place of origin of such goods or class or classes of goods;


(b) contains or consists of geographical indication identifying goods or class or classes of goods notified under sub-section (2) of section 22 of the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (48
of 1999).


107. Single application under sub-section (2) of section 18.- (1) Where an application for the registration of a trademark for different classes of goods or services is made under sub-section (2) of section 18, the specification of
goods or services contained in it shall set out the classes in consecutive numerical order beginning with the lowest number and indicate in each class the goods or services appropriate to that class.


(2) Applications filed under sub-section (2) of section 18 when ordered to be advertised shall be published in a separate section of the Journal.


(3) The Registrar shall issue a single certificate of registration in respect of an application made under subsection (2) of section 18, which has proceeded to registration.


108. Divisional Application. - (1) Where an application is made in Form TM-M under proviso to section 22 for the division of a single pending application, the registrar may, on payment of a divisional fee, divide such application into
two or more separate applications.


(2) In case of division of application, The Registrar shall treat each divisional application as a separate application for registration with the same filing date as the initial application.


(3) Any time limit for any action by the applicant in relation to the initial application at the time of division shall be applicable to each new separate application created by division irrespective of the date of the division.


(4) In case of division of application, the Registrar shall assign an additional separate new serial number or numbers, as the case may be, and it shall be cross-referenced with the initial application.


(5) For the removal of doubt, it is clarified that no new registration shall be effected when a single application is divided. On the contrary, application already filed shall be merely separated or divided into individual files.


109. Extension of time- (1) An application for extension of time under section 131 (not being a time expressly provided in the Act or prescribed by rule 85 or by sub-rule (3) of rule 86 or a time for the extension of which provision is
made in the rules) shall be made in Form TM-M.


(2) Upon an application made under sub-rule (1) the Registrar, if satisfied that the circumstances are such as to justify the extension of the time applied for, may, subject to the provisions of the rules where a maximum time limit is
prescribed and subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time not exceeding one month and communicate the parties accordingly and the extension may be granted though the time for doing the act or taking the
proceeding for which it is applied for has already expired.


110. Exercise of discretionary power of Registrar.- Any person who has applied for the exercise of discretionary or other power of the Registrar and requires a hearing under section 128, shall inform the Registrar in writing of his
intention to be heard within one month from the date of notice which the registrar shall give to such person before determining the matter. Upon the receipt of such information, if any, the Registrar shall appoint a date of hearing of not
less than twenty one days and give notice thereof.


111. Communication of decision.- The decision of the Registrar in the exercise of any discretionary power given to him by the Act or the rules shall be communicated to the person affected.


112. Amendments and correction of irregularity in procedure.- (1) Any document or drawing or other representation of a trade mark may be amended, and any irregularity in procedure which, in the opinion of the Registrar,
may be obviated without detriment to the interests of any person, may be corrected.


(2) The Registrar may require the amendment of any application or representation of a trade mark or any other document or the addition of any matter thereto in order to bring it in accordance with the formal requirements of the Act.


113. Directions not otherwise prescribed.- Where in the opinion of the Registrar, it is necessary for the proper prosecution or completion of any proceedings under the Act or rules for a person to perform an act, file a document or produce evidence, which is not provided for by the Act or the rules, the Registrar may by notice in writing require the person to perform the act, file the document or produce the evidence, specified in the notice.


114. Opinion of the Registrar under section 115(4).- (1) Where a matter has been referred to the Registrar for his opinion under proviso to sub-section (4) of section 115 such opinion shall be forwarded under a sealed cover within
seven working days of the receipt of such written intimation to the referring authority and the Registrar shall ensure complete confidentiality in the matter so referred.


(2) The opinion under this rule shall be given by the Registrar or an officer specially authorised for this purpose under sub-section (2) of section 3 and the name of the designated officer shall be published in the journal.

 

                                          Hearings

 

115. Hearings.- (1) the hearing if any, in relation to any proceeding under the Act and rules may be held at the notified date and time and at such place within the territorial jurisdiction of the appropriate office as the Registrar may
think fit:


Provide that the hearing may also be held through video- conferencing or through any other audio-visual communication devices and in such cases the hearing shall be deemed to have taken place at the appropriate office.


Explanation - For the purposes of this rule, the expression "communication device" has the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (ha) of sub section (ii) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act,2000 (21 of 2000).


(2) Where an officer exercising the powers of the Registrar who has heard any matter under the Act or the rules, has reserved orders therein, is transferred from one office of the Registry to another or reverts to another appointment before passing an order or rendering decision therein, he may, if the Registrar so directs, pass the order or render the decision as if he had continued to be the officer in the office of the Trade Marks Registry where the matter was heard.

                               

                               Awards of Costs by Registrar

 


116. Costs in uncontested cases.- (1) Where a reasonable notice has been given to an applicant by the opponent before filing the notice of opposition and the applicant fails to contest the opposition, the Registrar may impose such
costs on the applicant as may be specified in Forth Schedule.


(2) Where an opposition has been filed and the opponent fails to contest the proceedings after the applicant has filed counter statement, the Registrar may impose such costs on the opponent as may be specified in Forth Schedule.


117. Exception to rule 116. - Notwithstanding anything in rule 116, costs in respect of fees specified under entries, 10 and 11 of the First Schedule and of all stamps used on and affixed to affidavits used in the proceedings shall follow
the event.


118. Scale of costs.- Subject to the provisions of rules 116 and 117, in all proceedings before the Registrar, he may,
save as otherwise expressly provided by the Act, award such costs, not exceeding the amount admissible thereof under
the Forth Schedule, as he considers reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case.

 

 

                               Review of Decisions of the Registrar

 

119. Application for review of Registrar's decision.- An application to the Registrar for the review of his decision under sub-section (c) of section 127 shall be made in Form TM-M within one month from the date of such decision or within such further period not exceeding one month thereafter as the Registrar may on request allow, and shall be accompanied by a statement setting forth the grounds on which the review is sought. Where the decision in question concerns any other person in addition to the applicant, such application and statement shall be left in triplicate and the Registrar shall forthwith transmit a copy each of the application and statement to the other person concerned. The Registrar may, after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, reject or grant the application, either
unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, as he thinks fit.

 

                                           Affidavit

 

120. Form, etc; of Affidavits.- (1) The Affidavits required by the Act and the rules to be filed at the Trade Marks Registry or furnished to the Registrar, unless otherwise provided in the Second Schedule, shall be headed in the matter or
matters to which they relate, shall be drawn up in the first person, and shall be divided into paragraphs consecutively numbered; and each paragraph shall, as far as practicable, be confined to one subject. Every affidavit shall state the
description and the true place of abode of the person making the same and shall bear the name and address of the person filing it and shall state on whose behalf it is filed.


(2) Where two or more persons join in an affidavit, each of them shall depose separately to such facts which are within his personal knowledge and those facts shall be stated in separate paragraphs.


(3) Affidavits - (a) In India, before any court or before any officer empowered such to administer oaths or to take affidavits or before the Registrar or before the Notary Public.


(b) In any country or place outside India, before a diplomatic or consular officer, within the meaning of the Diplomatic and Consular Officers (Oaths and Fee) Act, 1948 (41 of 1948), of such country or place or before a notary public or before a Judge or Magistrate, of the country or place.


(4) The person before whom an affidavit is taken shall state the date on which and the place where the same is taken and shall affix his seal, if any, or the seal of the office to which he is attached thereto and sign his name and description at the end thereof.


(5) Alterations and interlineations shall, before an affidavit is sworn or affirmed, be authenticated by the initials of the person before whom the affidavit is taken.


(6) Every affidavit filed before the Registrar in connection with any of the proceedings under the Act or the rules shall be duly stamped under the law for the time being in force. Inspection of Documents by Public


121. Inspection of documents.- The documents mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 148 shall be available for inspection at the appropriate office of the Trade Mark Registry on payment of the fee mentioned in First Schedule on all
working days and at such times as may be fixed by the Registrar.


                                               Certificates

 


122. Certified copies of documents.- The Registrar may, on request being made in Form TM-M along with fees mentioned in First Schedule, furnish certified copies of any entry in the register or of any documents referred to in subsection
(1) of section 148 or of any decision or order of the Registrar, or of a certificate other than a certificate under sub76 section (2) of section 23 as to any entry, matter or thing which he is authorised or required by the Act or the rules to
make.


Provided that the Registrar may furnish an expedited certified copies of the documents aforementioned within seven working days on a request in Form TM-M received to that effect on payment fees as specified in First Schedule.


Explanation: A certified copy of any record available digitally with the Registrar shall be a duly certified copy of that record.


123. Power of Registrar to notify International Non-proprietary names. - The Registrar shall from time to time publish in the Journal, the words which are declared by the World Health Organisation as international non-proprietary
names referred to in sub-section (b) of section 13.


                                         Well-Known Trademarks

 


124. Determination of Well Known Trademark by Registrar. - (1) Any person may, on an application in Form TM-M and after payment of fee as mentioned in First schedule, request the Registrar for determination of a trademark as
well-known. Such request shall be accompanied by a statement of case along with all the evidence and documents relied by the applicant in support of his claim.


(2) The Registrar shall, while determining the trademark as well-known take in to account the provisions of sub section (6) to (9) of section 11.


(3) For the purpose of determination, the Registrar may call such documents as he thinks fit.


(4) Before determining a trademark as well-known, the Registrar may invite objections from the general public to be filed within thirty days from the date of invitation of such objection.


(5) In case the trademark is determined as well-known, the same shall be published in the trademark Journal and included in the list of well-known trademarks maintained by the Registrar.


(6) The Registrar may, at any time, if it is found that a trademark has been erroneously or inadvertently included or is no longer justified to be in the list of well-known trademarks, remove the same from the list after providing due
opportunity of hearing to the concerned party.


                        Appeal to the Intellectual Property Appellate Board

 


125. Time for appeal. - An appeal to the Intellectual Property Appellate Board from any decision of the Registrar under the Act or the rules shall be made within three months from the date of such decision.


126. Service to the Registrar. - A copy of every application to Intellectual Property Appellate Board under the Act shall be served on the Registrar. Certificate of Validity


127. Certificate of validity to be noted. - Where the Intellectual Property Appellate Board has certified as provided in section 141 with regard to the validity of a registered trademark the registered proprietor thereof may request the Registrar in Form TM-M to add to the entry in the register a note that the certificate of validity has been granted in the course of the proceedings, particulars of which shall be given in the request. An officially certified copy of the certificate shall be sent with the request, and the Registrar shall record a note to that effect in the register and publish the note in the Journal.


                    Return of Exhibits and Destruction of Records

 


128. Return of exhibits.- (1) Where the exhibits produced in any matter or proceeding under the Act or the rules are no longer required in the Trade Marks Registry, the Registrar may call upon the party concerned to take back the
exhibits within a time specified by him and if the party fails to do so, such exhibits shall be destroyed.


(2) Where, before the notified date any exhibits have been produced in any proceeding, the Registrar may, if satisfied that it is no longer necessary to retain them call upon the party concerned to take back the exhibits within a time
specified by him and if the party fails to do so, such exhibit shall be destroyed.


129. Destruction of records.- Where an application for the registration of a trademark has been withdrawn or abandoned or refused or a trademark has been removed from the register or in an opposition or rectification proceeding
the matter has been concluded and no appeal is pending before the Intellectual Property Appellate Board, the Registrar may, at the expiration of one years after the application is withdrawn or is abandoned or is refused or after the trademark
is removed from the register or the opposition or rectification proceeding is closed, as the case may be, destroy all or any of the records relating to the application, opposition or rectification or the trademark concerned.

 

 

                                              PART II

        

                        SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR COLLECTIVE TRADEMARKS

 

130. Rules to apply to collective trademarks.- The provisions of Part I, Part IV, and VII of these rules shall, in their application to collective trademarks, apply only subject to the provisions of this Part.


131. Application for registration and proceedings relating thereto.- (1) An application for the registration of a collective trademark for goods or services under sub-section (1) of section 63 shall be made to the Registrar in Form.
TM-A along with the draft regulations.


(2) References in Part I of the rules to the acceptance of an application for the registration of a trademark for goods or services, shall, in their application to collective trademark, be substituted by references to authorisation to
proceed with the application.


(3) The address in India, if any, of an applicant to register a collective trademark shall be deemed to be the address of his principal place of business in India for all the purposes for which such an address is required by the rules.


(4) The regulations governing collective trademarks shall specify, inter alia-


(a) the name of the association of persons and their respective office addresses;


(b) the object of the association;


(c) the details of members;


(d) the conditions for membership and relation of each member with the group;


(e) the persons authorised to use the trademark and the nature of control the applicant exercise over the use of the collective trademark;


(f) the conditions governing use of the collective trademark, including sanctions;


(g) the procedure for dealing with appeals against the use of the collective trademark;


(h) such other relevant particulars as may be called for by the Registrar.


132. Case accompanying application.- The applicant shall submit to the Registrar along with his application a statement of case setting out the grounds on which he relies in support of his application. Such statement of case shall be furnished in duplicate.


133. Examination, Hearing, Opposition, Registration, and Renewal. - The provisions related to examination, hearing, opposition, registration and renewal of trademarks shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of collective trademarks.


134. Amendment of regulations relating to collective trademarks and renewal.-

(a) An application by the registered proprietor of a collective trademark for any amendment to the regulation under Section 66 shall be made in
Form TM-M and where the Registrar accepts any such amendment he shall advertise, such application in the Journal and further proceedings in the matter shall be governed by rules 42 to 51.


(b) A collective trademark may be renewed from time to time and the provision of rule 57 to 61 shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of such request for renewal.


135. Removal of collective trademark.- An application for removal of a collective trademark from the register shall be made in Form TM-O and shall set forth particulars of the grounds on which the application is made. The provisions of rule 97 to 100 of these rules shall apply mutatis mutandis for further proceeding in the matter.

 

                                               PART IV

                             REGISTRATION OF TRADEMARKS AGENTS

 

142. Register of Trademarks Agents.- The Registrar of Trade Marks shall maintain a Register of trademarks agents wherein shall be entered the name, address of the place of residence, address of the principal place of business,
the nationality, qualifications and date of registration of every registered trademarks agent.


143. Registration of existing registered trademarks agents, code of conduct, etc.- (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 144, every person whose name has been entered in the register of trademarks agents maintained under
the old law shall be deemed to be registered as a trademarks agent under these rules.


(2) The Registrar may publish in the Journal a code of conduct for the registered trademarks agent authorising them to act as such.


144. Qualifications for registration.- Subject to the provisions of rule 145, a person shall be qualified to be registered as a trademarks agent if he-


(i) is a citizen of India,


(ii) is not less than 21 years of age;


(iii) is a graduate of any university in India or possesses an equivalent qualification and has passed the examination prescribed in rule 148 or is an Advocate within the meaning of the Advocates Act, 1961 (25 of 1961) or is a
member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India;

(iv) is considered by the Registrar as a fit and proper person to be registered as a trademark agent.


145. Persons debarred from registration.- A person shall not be eligible for registration as a trademarks agent if he-


(i) has been adjudged by a competent Court to be of unsound mind;


(ii) is an undischarged insolvent;


(iii) being a discharged insolvent has not obtained from the court or the appropriate forum as the case may, a certificate to the effect that his insolvency was caused by misfortune without any misconduct on his part;


(iv) has been convicted by a competent court or the appropriate forum as the case may, whether within or outside India of an offence punishable with transportation or imprisonment, unless the offence of which he has been convicted has been pardoned or unless on an application made by him, the Central Government by order in this behalf, has removed the disability;


(v) being a legal practitioner has been held guilty of professional misconduct by any High Court in India;


(vi) being a chartered accountant, has been held guilty of negligence or misconduct by a High Court; or


(vii) being a registered trademarks agent has been held guilty of professional misconduct by the Registrar.


146. Manner of making application.- All applications under the provisions of this Part shall be made in duplicate and shall be sent to or submitted at that office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the principal place of business of the applicant is situate.


147. Application for registration as a trademarks agent.- (1) Every person desiring to be registered as a trademarks agent shall make an application in Form TM-G.


(2) The applicant shall furnish such further information bearing on his application as may be required of him at any time by the Registrar.


148. Procedure on application and qualifying requirements. - (1) On receipt of an application for the registration of a person as a trademarks agent, the Registrar, if satisfied that the applicant fulfils the prescribed qualifications, shall appoint a date in due course on which the candidate will appear for examination in Trade Marks Law and practice.


(2) The qualifying marks for the examination shall be as advertised by the Registrar.


149. Certificate of registration. - If the Registrar considers the applicant eligible and qualified under rule 144 for registration as a trademark agent, he shall enroll the candidate as a registered trademark agent after payment of prescribed
fee and shall issue a certificate in Form RG-4 and the registration shall subsist till end of the financial year of the registration.


150. Continuance of the name in the register of Trade Marks Agents. - The continuance of a person's name in the register of trademarks agents shall be subject to his payment of the fees prescribed in First Schedule.


151. Removal of agent's name from the register of Trade Marks agents.- (1) The Registrar shall remove from the register of trademarks agents the name of any registered trademarks agent-


(a) from whom' a request has been received to that effect; or


(b) from whom the annual fee has not been received on the expiry of three months from the date on which it became due.


(2) The Registrar shall remove from the register of trademarks agents, the name of any registered trademarks agent-


(a) who is found to have been subject at the time of his registration, or thereafter has become subject, to any of the disabilities stated in clauses (i) to(vii) of rule 145;or


(b) whom the Registrar has declared not to be a fit and proper person to remain in the Register by reason of any act of negligence, misconduct or dishonesty committed in his professional capacity;


(c) whose name has been entered in the register by an error or on account of misrepresentation or suppression of material fact:


Provided that before making such declaration under clauses (b) and (c) the Registrar shall call upon the person concerned to show-cause why his registration should not be cancelled and shall make such further enquiry, if any, as may
be consider necessary.



(3) The Registrar shall remove from the register of trademarks agents the name of any registered trademarks agent who is dead.


(4) The removal of the name of any person from the register of trademarks agents shall be notified in the Journal and shall, wherever possible, be communicated to the person concerned.


152. Power of Registrar to refuse to deal with certain agents.- (1) The Registrar may refuse to recognise-


(a) any individual whose name has been removed from, and not restored to the register;


(b) any person, not being registered as a trademarks agent, who in the opinion of the Registrar is engaged wholly or mainly in acting as agent in applying for trademarks in India or elsewhere in the name or for the benefit of the
person by whom he is employed;


(c) any company or firm, if any person whom the Registrar could refuse to recognise as agent in respect of any business under these rules, is acting as a director or manager of the company or is a partner in the firm.


(2) The Registrar shall refuse to recognise as agent in respect of any business under this rule any person who neither resides nor has a place of business in India.


153. Restoration of removed names.- (1) The registrar may, on an application made in Form TM-G with fee as specified in the First Schedule, within three years from the date of removal of the name of a person from the Register of trademarks agents, whose name has been removed under clause (b) of sub-rule (1) of rule 151, restore his name to the register of Trade Marks agents.


(2) The restoration of a name to the register of trademarks agent shall be notified in the Journal and shall be communicated to the person concerned.


154. Alteration in the register of Trademarks Agents.- (1) A registered trademarks agent may apply in Form TM-G for alteration of his name, address of the place of residence, address of the principal place of business or qualifications entered in the register of trademarks agents. On receipt of such application and the fee prescribed in that behalf, the Registrar shall cause the necessary alteration to be made in the register of trademarks agents.


(2) Every alteration made in the register of trademarks agents shall be notified in the Journal.


155. Publication of the register of trademarks agents.- The Registrar shall ordinarily publish the list of agents in the register of trademarks agents from time to time, and at least once in two years together with their addresses as entered
in the register.


156. Appeal.- An appeal shall lie to Intellectual Property Appellate Board from any order or decision of the Registrar in regard to the registration or removal of trademarks agents under Part IV of these rules, and the decision of
the Appellate Board shall be final and binding.

 

 

                                                Part V
              

                         Language of the Trade Marks Registry

 

157. Language of the Trade Marks Registry. - (1) The language of the Trade Marks Registry shall be English:


Provided that the parties to a proceedings before the Trade Marks Registry may file documents drawn up in Hindi, if they so desire:


Provided further that that where-


(a) the Registrar permits the use of Hindi in the proceedings of the Tribunal and hearing in such proceedings, he may in his discretion direct English translation of pleadings and documents to be filed;


(b) the Trade Marks Registry located in "Region A" as defined in clause (f) of rule 2 of the Official Languages (Use for Official Purposes of the Union) Rules, 1976, the Registrar may, in his discretion, make final orders either in Hindi or in English.


(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraph (1), where a final order is made in Hindi, an authenticated English translation thereof shall simultaneously be prepared and kept on record.

 

                                                PART VI

                                                                 REPEAL

 

158. Repeal.- The Trade Marks Rules, 2002, are hereby repealed without prejudice to anything done under such rules before the coming into force of these rules.